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Agenda Item - 2020-05-05 - Number 5.1 - Resolution 19-55 Sustainability and Climate Action Plan 5.1 D 0s COUNCIL REPORT 442, ro OREOOt.4 Subject: Resolution 19-55 to Adopt a Sustainability and Climate Action Plan Meeting Date: May 5, 2020 Staff Member: Jenny Slepian Department: City Manager's Office Action Required Advisory Board/Commission Recommendation ❑ Motion ❑X Approval ❑ Public Hearing ❑ Denial ❑ Ordinance ❑ None Forwarded ❑X Resolution ❑ Not Applicable ❑ Information Only Comments: ❑ Council Direction ❑ Consent Agenda Staff Recommendation: Pass Resolution 19-55 to adopt the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan Recommended Language for Motion: Adopt Resolution 19-55. Project/ Issue Relates To: ❑X Council Goals/Priorities ❑Adopted Master Plan(s) ❑Not Applicable ISSUE BEFORE COUNCIL Adoption of the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan BACKGROUND The City Council had a 2017 goal to "support the creation of a climate change action plan based on advice from the Sustainability Advisory Board, consistent with Council policy direction." Throughout 2017-18, a core committee of Sustainability Advisory Board (SAB) and Lake Oswego Sustainability Network members worked together to complete a six-page climate action plan with appendices. This document was reviewed by staff on the Staff Sustainability Committee, and was reviewed by the public at an Open House held on March 1. The plan was reviewed by 503.635.0215 380 A Avenue PO BOX 369 Lake Oswego, OR 97034 www.lakeoswego.city Page 2 the City Council at a February 27 study session, and Resolution 18-15 approving the climate action plan "to be incorporated into a revised Sustainability and Climate Action Plan for Lake Oswego" was passed by the City Council on April 3, 2018. The revised Sustainability and Climate Action Plan was then reviewed by the City Council at the February 18, 2020 meeting. There were a few recommended changes made by the councilors, which have been incorporated as revisions to the current plan up for adoption. DISCUSSION Since passing Resolution 18-15, the City has done the following to put the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan together: 2018 • A Staff Sustainability Committee met to start providing comments on what was either complete, attempted, or not able to complete in the Sustainability Action Plan for City Operations • Staff provided further review of Practical Climate Actions for Lake Oswego, which indicated that there were several issues with the recommendations that needed to be addressed • Staff begin working with ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability for recommendations on how to move forward with a revised plan that was workable for City staff and the wider community 2019 • In January, the City hires ICLEI as a consultant to accomplish two tasks: o Analyze the Climate Action Plan and provide recommendations on how to create more practical and workable actions o Undertake a climate hazards assessment using the Temperate software to create climate adaptation goals for the City • In February, City staff and the Sustainability Advisory Board Chair meet with ICLEI to create a work plan and review the climate hazards modelling software • In March, ICLEI presents the climate hazards assessment to the Sustainability Advisory Board, who bring up some concerns about the data • The timeline is pushed back as ICLEI is asked to revise some recommendations and climate hazards • In May, ICLEI submits final work products. SAB reviews the work and expresses further concerns about the data sources and applicability of the recommendations to Lake Oswego • Certain staff and department heads are contacted and asked to review the ICLEI recommendations. Staff also express concerns. • During the Fall 2019, staff decide to leave out the majority of ICLEI work and proceed with writing the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan internally, contacting other cities for assistance at times. 503.635.0215 380 A Avenue PO BOX 369 Lake Oswego, OR 97034 www.lakeoswego.city Page 3 • In the late fall, a draft is completed. The City Manager directs the Executive Team to provide feedback on it, individually and in groups. • After the feedback is received, additional staff are contacted to provide clarity on some items where staff feedback was conflicting. • The draft is also sent to SAB, LOSN, PGE, Metro, and Clackamas County for input. • December 2019-January 2020, staff edit and revise the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan to its current form 2020 • A draft of the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan was reviewed by the City Council at the February 18 meeting. Recommendations for revisions to the plan were discussed. • Revisions were incorporated into the plan. The most significant of these include: o Financial projections of the approximate cost of each action o Clarification of the EV fleet goal o Alterations to the implementation schedule to allow for better staff scheduling and to take into account possible delays from COVID-19 The current draft of the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan is significantly more complete than the previous climate action plan, which did not address topics like waste or toxics reduction, climate adaptation, education, or employee health and engagement. The Sustainability and Climate Action Plan also includes emissions reduction targets from energy use that are consistent with those recommended to reach global atmospheric CO2 reduction goals. Based on Council recommendations, this plan will be reviewed every 2-3 years with annual progress reports given to Council. Currently, Clackamas County is working on a Climate Action Plan and Greenhouse Gas Inventory. The inventory is scheduled to be complete by the end of June, though there may be COVID-19 associated delays. Based on the results of this inventory, there may be some revisions to the emissions reduction targets that could warrant a report to Council. The Sustainability Advisory Board will also begin work on prioritized actions following adoption of the Plan and will continue to treat this as a living, working document. RECOMMENDATION Adopt Resolution 19-55. ATTACHMENTS 1. Resolution 19-55, with Exhibit A Sustainability and Climate Action Plan 503.635.0215 380 A Avenue PO BOX 369 Lake Oswego, OR 97034 www.lakeoswego.city ATTACHMENT 1 RESOLUTION 19-55 A RESOLUTION OF THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF LAKE OSWEGO ADOPTING THE SUSTAINABILITY AND CLIMATE ACTION PLAN FOR LAKE OSWEGO WHEREAS,The City Council adopted a 2017 goal to "support the creation of a climate change action plan based on advice from the Sustainability Advisory Board, consistent with Council policy direction; and WHEREAS, a Draft Climate Action Plan was approved by the City Council through Resolution 18- 15 to be incorporated into a Sustainability and Climate Action Plan for Lake Oswego; and WHEREAS, The existing Sustainability Action Plan for City Operations requires revision and updating, and can incorporate the climate actions to meet existing goals within the plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; NOW,THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED by the City Council of the City of Lake Oswego that: Section 1. The "Sustainability and Climate Action Plan for Lake Oswego" is adopted in the form attached as Exhibit A. Section 2. Progress on the plan will be reviewed annually. Section 3. Effective Date. This Resolution shall take effect upon adoption. Considered and enacted at the regular meeting of the City Council of the City of Lake Oswego on the 5th day of May, 2020. AYES: NOES: EXCUSED: ABSTAIN: Kent Studebaker, Mayor Resolution 19-55 Page 1 of 2 ATTEST: Anne-Marie Simpson, City Recorder APPROVED AS TO FORM: David Powell, City Attorney Resolution 19-55 Page 2 of 2 .1 .. l i 'LK .. — N w \ �. •�.W4a a 0- r,.'�, 0 r- • i ^� i ` 4 ilf flri. .;:it +N,'� t — ' a , t:l+ "%lti 4 ii.-4'14' .44;. d. , „ __.....' ,.i., - 7 • ::.,:: -. : , 4.7. .,, , 0 (113 l 7 -0 At ,. ..V.. -•-f,- ":,• , -.." 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';44 /(. iht '' cu 4 i ,1 i ''.+ � I": ' ..' • �.,1"t — ANC 4 TO: Mayor Kent Studebaker Members of the City Council FROM: Members of the Sustainability Advisory Board (SAB) SUBJECT: Support for the adoption of Lake Oswego's Sustainability and Climate Action Plan DATE: April 23, 2020 We,the members of the Sustainability Advisory Board (SAB), unanimously support Council's adoption of the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan (SCAP).The SCAP represents achievable actions and goals that will have community-wide benefits both in terms of climate mitigation and adaptation.The SCAP is not a stand-alone document. Instead,the SCAP is intended to work alongside existing plans in order to guide civic and community actions towards more sustainable outcomes. Over the past three years, the SAB has championed the development of the SCAP by providing research and guidance. Its development has been a key manifestation of our mandate to work towards the following goals: advise and assist the City Council in efforts to make City operations more sustainable, promote plans and policies that enhance the sustainability of the City as a whole, and educate and engage the public in efforts to make the community of Lake Oswego more sustainable. A brief summary of SAB's actions in support of the Climate Action Plan as follows: • December 2016—The SAB makes the recommendation to City Council that it supports the creation of a Climate Action Plan. In the subsequent January 2017 goal-setting session, City Council votes 4-3 to support the creation of a Climate Action Plan. • February 2017-The SAB, along with key City staff and the Lake Oswego Sustainability Network (LOSN), form a Climate Action Plan Working Group in order to research and prioritize climate action recommendations. • March of 2018—The CAP Working Group submits Practical Climate Actions for Lake Oswego, a document outlining steps to provide "near term inspiration and long-term direction" for the Lake Oswego City, School District, and community at large. • 2019—The SAB continues to guide the development of the recommended actions, culminating in the SCAP Study Session document, submitted to council in February 2020. In November of last year, the SAB submitted to Council our stated goals for 2020. First on our list was the following: "Advance our climate actions by supporting Council and Staff as the City moves towards the adoption of Lake Oswego's Sustainability and Climate Action Plan." While many actions contained within the SCAP have longer horizons,the implementation of others can begin right away.Two areas of action that can be addressed immediately are electric vehicle charging and emissions from gas powered landscaping equipment. • Action EV3: Work with developers to educate them on the benefits of providing EV charging stations at multifamily housing developments and new parking garages. • Action T03: Investigate strategies to reduce exposure to emissions from gas powered landscaping equipment and diesel construction equipment. These two actions represent some of the areas that that can help catalyze the process of climate action implementation.The SAB has and will continue to gather information that aims to inform stakeholders on possible paths forward. We are pleased that our many hours of deliberation and collaboration with City staff and community groups have finally brought the SCAP to City Council for adoption.Addressing climate change is the defining challenge of our time, and the adoption of Lake Oswego's Sustainability and Climate Action Plan is a prime opportunity for City Council to demonstrate clear and commendable leadership in the face of this complex yet critical issue. Respectfully, Paul Soper,Chair Richard Canaday Stephanie Glazer Sarah Hussion Allison Kim Bob Sack Kathleen Wiens Jessica Green,Alternate Ella Feathers,Youth Anna-Marie Guenther,Youth CONTENTS Letter from Lakeridge and Lake Oswego Environmental Club Members 1 Background and Introduction 3 Reduce Transportation Emissions 13 Electric Vehicles 13 Transit and Carpooling/car sharing Options 16 Bicycle Options 17 Promote Energy Efficiency 19 Solar Installations 19 Energy Efficiency for New Construction 20 Energy efficiency for existing construction 22 Promote Water Conservation 25 Protect Natural Resources 29 Reduce Exposure to Toxins 32 Reduce Waste 34 Enhance Public Education 37 City Employee Health and engagement 39 Adapt to climate change 41 Wildfire Smoke 44 Moving Forward 48 Acknowledgements 48 Appendix 1: Draft climate Action Plan i Appendix 2: ICLEI revised Climate Action plan and report ii Appendix 3: ICLEI temperate adaptation recommendations iii Appendix 4:2012 Community Greenhouse Gas INventory iv Appendix 5: City Staff Sustainability Survey v LETTER FROM LAKERIDGE AND LAKE OSWEGO ENVIRONMENTAL CLUB MEMBERS Over 1000 jurisdictions worldwide have reacted to the urgency of the climate crisis by declaring a state of climate emergency.These jurisdictions include Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, as well as the nearby jurisdictions of Hood River, Milwaukie, and Portland.These declarations commit to reducing reliance on fossil fuels in municipal operations and reaching net-zero as soon as possible. We must commit to doing the same.The latest climate report from the United Nations declares that we are running out of time; we only have 10 years to transform our economies to preserve the climate that human civilization has depended on for millennia.This ten-year timeline is essential in evading the worst consequences of the climate crisis. Our generation has been repeatedly burdened with shaping the future of this planet. We have been condemned to a future that is ravaged by wildfires, heatwaves, hurricanes, and a never-ending waste stream. A task of such magnitude will define our world for generations to come. However, we cannot do this alone.All eyes are on our world's leaders,from local elected officials like you to the upcoming presidential election. You have our undivided attention and will continue to because for us to succeed, we all must act now. We are requesting your outspoken support as we continue to advocate for an unprecedented mobilization of every aspect of American society to confront the climate crisis that looms over our futures. We are focused on leading an intersectional climate movement that will interact with each aspect of our daily lives as well as yours. In the coming months, millions of like-minded young people will take to the streets to champion a resolution that meets the scale of the climate crisis. As part of this mobilization,we ask that our City Councilors declare a state of climate emergency. Fully addressing these issues, however, requires more than just these two actions. As City Councilors, you have the power to aid our movement on a local level by addressing these issues head-on in Lake Oswego.This could mean executing a wide variety of sustainable initiatives, but we have identified three central areas of concern: transportation, community outreach, and education. Public transportation is a necessity for individual action in reducing carbon footprint,thus we must address how limited our options currently are. We simply need more extensive bus lines in Lake Oswego,and perhaps even more important, safe walking and bike paths, particularly to schools. As young people,we have been repeatedly shamed for failing to utilize modes of transportation less taxing on the environment. However, in order for citizens to take advantage of sustainable infrastructure, it needs to exist in the first place. Furthermore, we have observed an absence of outreach or recognition of community groups, particularly youth advocacy groups. Positive affirmation does little for our initiatives and undermines our efforts to be heard. Our local elected officials must take charge of these issues by working to 1 connect with those dedicated to resolving them. As elected officials,you have an inherent responsibility to validate the urgency of the climate crisis and help locals take action. Milwaukie Mayor Mark Gamba said in the city's Climate Emergency Declaration that, "Climate chaos is the biggest threat to humanity that we have ever faced—if this isn't an emergency, I'm not sure what would ever rise to that level. We now have only ten years to make extraordinary changes to our society, if we hope to survive." As a municipality, Lake Oswego can most effectively address the climate crisis by expediting its climate goals in regards to lessening fossil fuel emissions. We are calling upon our elected officials to take the actions necessary to become carbon-neutral by 2030 in order to evade the detrimental consequences of climate chaos. Addressing the growing climate crisis is difficult, expensive, polarizing, but inarguably necessary. If we fail to act, we are making a conscious choice to stand by as the environment around us collapses, causing billions of dollars of damage and unquantifiable losses of human life, natural resources, and habitat. We will not and cannot let that happen. With that in mind,we support the initiatives included within the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan and look forward to the implementation of solutions in our areas of concern. Respectfully, Anna-Marie Guenther, Ella Feathers, Benjamin Connor, Evan Melendez, Laila Bozorth,Jacqueline Stohl, Brooklynn Lowcock, Kean Bowman, Cameron Johnston, Ruby Cumming, Mya Gordon, Lana Schaffer, Gabriella Goldsmid, Ethan Ashbrook, Simon Plotkin, Alister Orozco, Ximena Murguialoyo, Cory Brown, Jake Archambo, Nate Foster, Izzy Rowland, Isabella Scott-Buck,Annelise Foster,Taryn Jones, Ashley McCann, Stephen Lines,Thanaphon Singsukhum, Isabella Arena, Nandita Kumar,Alana Penoyer, Grace Wollmuth, ShengYao Liu, Brooke Plasse,Jaimie Choi,Alicia Liu, Megan Chiang, Kyla Zhang,Arshia Sohal, Deeya Arora, Emma Pochman, Megan Voss, Mariam Nechiporuk, Zena Ali, Arielle Bloom, Lily Lines, Gemma Pleas ( 2 BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION What will Lake Oswego's climate look like 60 years from now?80 years from now? Over the past few years,we have already experienced hot, drier, and smokier summers, increased flooding risk, a decreased mountain snowpack, and more air and water quality issues. Climate projections indicate that Lake Oswego's climate in 60 years will be similar to that of Sacramento, California. What does that mean for our native species, outdoor recreation, and quality of life? Preparing for climate change brings with it many opportunities for the wider community. Expanding transportation options and building more resilient and energy efficient housing helps to address equity issues in the community, along with improving air quality. Preserving tree cover helps keep our neighborhoods cooler and our watersheds cleaner. Using renewable energy helps build a regional sustainable energy economy, while reducing our waste helps keep Oregon communities cleaner by not trucking as much to landfill, compost facilities, or overseas for recycling. The Sustainability Action Plan for City Operations 2014 has For NOo-NszAons provided the framework for the Sustainability program at the City ` °'""Nei"u' • ANAYs aman met since its adoption. Many of the actions included in the plan have nw' "�"' been completed, some remain in progress such as installation of a. Automatic Meter Reading and transition to a hybrid or electric g OREGOH fleet, and other actions were tried and found to not be workable. .•• 's' ' In 2017,the City Council passed a goal instructing to staff to begin . f=�- ' ;, y work on a Climate Action Plan.The first stage of that work was to M _' ,}. • ' analyze progress on the existing sustainability plan. In 2018, a staff .z la.7: f' 1'4 112'F(7.YC)wamAFr sustainability committee worked through the existing document, Wmm P e providing feedback on every action in the plan. It became apparent that the plan is essentially obsolete and needed to be updated with ;,,. "• �` ' new actions in a new framework that can incorporate the climate Figure 1:University of Maryland Center for action recommendations contained with the Draft Climate Action Environmental Science https://fitzlab.shinyapps.io/cityapp/ Plan (Appendix 1). Staff also recognized that there were some sustainability goals missing from the existing document and made recommendations that we include these in the revisions. Many goals around building efficiency are covered in the High Performance Buildings Guidelines 2015, but this document is mostly used in RFPs for new municipal construction or significant remodels. Both the Sustainability Action Plan for City Operations and the High Performance Buildings Guidelines applied only to City operations.The Draft Climate Action Plan includes recommendations for the City and wider community, and the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan contains actions that apply to both the City, and community groups interested in working on climate change issues. The new format is for the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan includes the following Goals: • Reduce Transportation Emissions 3 • Promote Energy Efficiency • Promote Water Conservation • Protect Natural Resources • Reduce Exposure to Toxins • Reduce Waste • Enhance Public Education • Improve Employee Health and Engagement • Adapt to Climate Change Each of the 10 draft climate action plan recommendations fit into these categories and sit alongside wider sustainability goals for the City. It is important to understand that goals and actions that result in greenhouse gas emission reductions are only one part of sustainability.The Sustainability and Climate Action Plan will take the standard triple bottom line (environmental, social, and economic) approach to achieving sustainable outcomes in the City. LAKE OSWEGO ELECTRICITY MIX Some of the actions in this plan have been quantified in terms of avoided Greenhouse Gas Emissions, though a quantitative goal for emissions reductions has not been set due to lack of a current greenhouse gas emissions inventory.The analysis for many of the actions is dependent on the local emissions factor for electricity production.An emissions factor represents the Why is Hydro Not Part of the RPS? quantity of a greenhouse gas pollutant released with a type of activity. For 2018, Portland General Electric (PGE) reported an Hydropower from dams built decades emissions factor of 740 lbs CO2/MWh.This emissions factor is ago are not eligible for credit for applied to the 2018 PGE generation mix of 5%wind and solar, Oregon's Renewable Portfolio 9.5% hydro, 14%coal, and 36.8% natural gas with the Standard.The RPS was created to remaining 35% made up from mixed source purchased energy' encourage the development of new The Oregon Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires 50% renewable electricity sources. Small,or renewable generation by 2040, which can be comprised of low-impact, hydro projects,or wind, solar, geothermal, or tidal energy. Large scale hydro efficiency upgrades made after 1995 installed before 1995 does not count towards the RPS. can be included in the RPS. Compliance with the RPS and consistent with PGE's GHG reduction goal of more than 80%will resulted in a projected emissions intensity of about 180 lbs CO2/MWH and an over 80%carbon free energy mix.This is the factor used in analyzing each of the actions that are more straightforward to quantify without undertaking a full inventory. Recently, the City of Lake Oswego signed onto a Power Purchase Agreement with PGE to purchase renewable electricity from a single wind or solar generation facility. Starting in 2021, over the 15-year term of the contract,the City's energy mix will be 100% renewable- including energy produced by the new facility, purchased renewable energy credits, and power 1 https://www.portlandgeneral.com/-/media/public/our-company/energy-strategy/documents/2019-integrated-resource- plan.pdf?la=en 4 ) produced for the State of Oregon renewable portfolio standard. By 2035, 100%of the mix will be energy from the new facility and RPS generation. Based on data provided by PGE, in 2018 The City of Lake Oswego purchased 8.5 million kWh of Clean Wind as a Platinum level customer and has retained its status as an EPA Green Power Community. Overall, in Lake Oswego, 16.73%of energy purchased from PGE is renewable and 40%carbon-free (this includes hydro)with 25%of all accounts (residential, commercial, and industrial)enrolled in one of PGE's voluntary renewable power purchase programs. CLIMATE ACTION PLANNING PROCESS At the 2017 City Council goals setting session, the City Council voted 4-3 to "support the creation of a Climate Action Plan based on advice from the Sustainability Advisory Board, consistent with Council policy direction". Following this, a citizen's advisory committee was put together to begin researching and writing climate action recommendations.The committee was comprised of 3 members of the Sustainability Advisory Board, and 3 members of the Lake Oswego Sustainability Network. Staff provided oversight and direction, and the City Manager recommended that the plan be no longer than 6 pages. The committee called on knowledgeable community members to contribute analysis to the plan,the majority of whom were pulled from the two groups represented in the committee. Over 50 pages of additional research were compiled to support their 10 selected recommended actions. City staff also provided comments on the recommendations and provided updates on progress towards the actions in the existing Sustainability Action Plan for City Operations 2014. In January 2019,the City retained the consulting firm, ICLEI- Local Governments for Sustainability,to help draft a more streamlined version of the Climate Action Plan that incorporated all the comments and feedback.They were also contracted to draft a Lake Oswego specific list of climate adaptation actions (Appendices 2 and 3). The City held a public open house for the Climate Action Plan in March 2018. Many of the comments that were received were incorporated into the plan. Following the inclusion of these comments, a draft of the plan was presented to the City Council. At the April 3, 2018 City Council meeting, Council 5 ) approved Resolution 18-15 to incorporate the climate actions into a revised Sustainability and Climate Action Plan. ADAPTATION VS MITIGATION The Climate Action Plan was never intended to be a standalone What is Climate •aptation. document, and it is not considered to be final nor complete until the new Sustainability and Climate Action Plan is adopted through Climate adaptation is reducing a resolution. vulnerability from the impacts from climate change. It requires an understanding of how climate change SUPPORTING CITY PLANS will affect your community directly. The City has several existing plans that will overlap, support, and Adapting to climate change may operate in partnership with the Sustainability and Climate Action require,for example,changes in zoning Plan. Some of the goals of this plan will ultimately require updates to not build in flood zones, landscape or refinements to the other plans so they can serve as restoration, increasing social services; implementation tools. It is important that City staff remain aware securing infrastructure,developing response plans, investing in energy of the recommendations of the Sustainability and Climate Action storage,etc. Plan as they begin processes to periodically update the plans listed below. What is Climate Mitigation? Parks Plan 2025 Climate mitigation is reducing your community's contribution to climate The Parks Plan 2025 provides the framework for protecting and change. It requires reducing investing in a sustainable network of parks, greenspaces, and greenhouse gas emissions through natural areas in Lake Oswego.The Parks Plan calls for a energy efficiency, investment in sustainable approach to managing City parks and facilities, renewable energy,supporting public through the use of water conservation measures, integrated pest transit, biking, and walking, limiting management practices, chemical use reduction, cultural food waste, etc. landscape management practices, and invasive species removal. In short,Climate Mitigation reduces Goal 2: Investing in Existing Parks and Natural Areas includes inputs to climate change while Climate objectives to enhance wildlife habitat, support ecological function, Adaptation prepares for its impacts. and improve environmental health of the city-all of which will improve climate change resiliency in Lake Oswego.A further objective (Goal 2.2) is to employ best practices in sustainability for water and energy usage,waste reduction, and permeability in the design and construction of existing and new facilities. Goal 4 outlines that the Parks Plan should complement the City's sustainable framework in providing services.The Parks Plan 2025 also complements the Trails and Pathways Master Plan (2003), an important guidance document for promoting active transportation. Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan (2019) The City of Lake Oswego Addendum to the Clackamas County Multi-Jurisdictional Hazard Mitigation Plan provides an in depth analysis of the risks posed to Lake Oswego from a wide variety of natural hazards and the city's ability to respond to these events. It is a comprehensive document that provides a number of recommended actions to help mitigate risk from these events.The plan mostly relies on historical ( 6 ) data and does not update risks based on climate projections. Moving forward,future versions of the Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan should include the projections provided in the Fourth Annual Climate Assessment Report 2019 written by the Oregon Climate Change Research Institute.The Sustainability and Climate Action Plan also includes adaptation actions for several of the natural hazards discussed in the mitigation plan.These two plans should complement each other. Comprehensive Plan The 2013 Comprehensive Plan contains several chapters that relate to both Sustainability overall and the impacts of climate change in Lake Oswego. Many of the elements that make a sustainable community are covered by the Comprehensive Plan, including supporting active and public transportation choices, healthy and resilient ecosystems, a range of housing to serve all ages, incomes, and household sizes, and public health.The Energy and Environment section of the Comprehensive Plan draws attention to Lake Oswego's greenhouse gas emissions and includes goals and policies to reduce carbon emissions in the City. Many of these strategies have been included and expanded upon in this plan, if not already completed in the years since the Comprehensive Plan was adopted.The Sustainability and Climate Action Plan supports many of the goals and vision of the Comprehensive Plan for a Lake Oswego in 2035 that is a "thriving, sustainable city, meeting the community's needs without compromising the needs of future generations." Transportation System Plan The 2015-2035 Transportation System Plan (TSP) includes a number of projects aimed at making walking, cycling, and transit more convenient, to,from, and within Lake Oswego. Reducing congestion and promoting active transportation are 2 of the 4 performance measures used to weigh projects in the TSP. A goal of tripling walking, biking, and transit mode share by 2035 compared to 2005 is included in the TSP, and the Transportation actions included in the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan will help Lake Oswego to achieve this target.There are over 200 pathways and bikeways in the TSP that require funding to develop. Moving forward, it will be critical that the transportation actions within this plan are incorporated into future revisions of the TSP to ensure their pathway to inclusion in the Capital Improvement Plan,where they can receive priority and funding. Including electric vehicle charging infrastructure is an area that could be added to the TSP, though inclusion in the City Code may be a more immediately effective tool. Stormwater Management Manual The 2016 Stormwater Management Manual provides important guidance for developing both hard and green infrastructure to manage runoff and improve water quality in Lake Oswego. Importantly,the manual addresses flooding and increased stormwater volumes from more frequent intense precipitation events in a changing climate. Using data from the Oregon Climate Change Research Institute,the manual suggests adapting infrastructure for increased runoff volume, using plants in green infrastructure solution that can adapt to new temperature and precipitation fluctuations, and incorporating resiliency measures (riparian protection,tree cover, etc)for maintaining instream flows. The Stormwater Management Manual provides excellent guidance for preparing for the impacts from 7 ) climate change in our local watershed and should be referred to when meeting the water quality and climate adaptation goals in the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY AND REDUCTION METHODOLOGY In 2012,the consulting firm, Good Company, completed a Community Greenhouse Gas Inventory for Lake Oswego', which was meant to serve as a baseline from which to measure future emissions reductions. At the time, Lake Oswego's Greenhouse Gas Emissions, based on data used from the 2006 census, was calculated at 1.27 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (MT CO2e), or 29.9 MT CO2e per Lake Oswego resident (Appendix 4). Lake Oswego Greenhouse Gas Emissions (2006) 1.27 Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent(Millions of MT CO2e) 29.9 Metric Tons CO2e per Lake Oswego Resident Emissions related to the production, Energy-related emissions manufacture and disposal of (Estimated 0.27 million MT CO2e) materials,goods and food Natural gas consumption by (Estimated 0.59 million MT CO2e) •Energy residents and businesses • Manufacture of products and 22% • Fossil fuel consumption from food(from inside and outside Materials utilities'imported electricity the region)consumed by Lake 46`Y% Oswego residents and businesses, • Freight movement of materials, goods and food • Waste management and recycling system(collection, Transportati• landfills) 31% Transportation emissions " • (Estimated 0.39 million MT CO2e) Local Government(operations) Local • Vehicle miles traveled by passenger vehicles (Estimated 0.02 million MT CO2e) Government and light trucks • Public infrastructure 1.5% • Operation of public transportation system projects (TriMet) • Owned fleet and employee commute transportation * Freight traffic inside Lake Oswego • Consumption of electricity and natural gas • Long-distance travel by Lake Oswego citizens Lake Oswego has changed significantly since 2006.Though the population has remained fairly steady, housing choices have changed, with many smaller homes demolished to be replaced with larger homes (though many of these are more energy efficient), transportation patterns and vehicle type have changed, and consumption has certainly increased with the proliferation of consumer electronics. However,the City of Lake Oswego, has worked to minimize emissions from a number of different sources.What have we already done to reduce emissions in Lake Oswego? Reduce Transportation Emissions: • Purchase 3 EVs for the City fleet, as well as several hybrids and plug-in hybrids 2 Good Company."Community Greenhouse Gas Inventory for Lake Oswego". February 2012. https://www.ci.oswego.or.us/sites/default/files/fileattachments/sustainability/webpage/13289/att a lakeoswego-commghginv- 021612-final.pdf(Accessed September 10 2019) ( 8 ) • Install publicly available EV charging stations on A Avenue, City Hall, and Public Works • Provide employees in City Hall and the Library with Universal Tri-Met Passes • Lake Oswego Sustainability Network annual EV Fair Promote Energy Efficiency: • Retrofit lighting to LEDs with sensor controls in majority of City facilities and install LED streetlights • Purchase 100% renewable energy from PGE for all City eligible accounts • Re-certify as EPA Green Power Community and Platinum level Clean Wind participant through City, Residential, and Commercial participation in PGE renewable purchase programs • Energy saving technologies installed at Lake Oswego Tigard Water Treatment Plant saves almost 2 million kWh/year in electricity • Install solar photvoltaic arrays on Lake Oswego Tigard Water Treatment Plant and Public Works facility • Constructing the new city hall to a LEED Gold standard with solar array Protect Natural Resources: • Maintain Certification as a Tree City USA by protecting Lake Oswego's tree canopy Reduce Waste: • Reduce food waste sent to landfill by offering curbside organics collection for commercial businesses and single family residences • Bi-annual waste audit of City facilities to identify opportunities to reduce waste • Ban single use plastic checkout bags and implement a 10 cent fee for paper bags • Develop a strategy to eliminate single use plastics at the Lake Oswego Farmers Market • Ensure furniture purchased for City facilities has a high recyclability rating • Clackamas County, LO Sustainability Network, and LO Library Repair Fairs to reduce consumption of new products and reduce items sent to landfill • Community Clean Up Day to divert waste from the landfill to reuse and recycle organizations As part of the scoping for the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan, the option to undertake another, more recent Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory was considered.These valuable tools are a quantitative way to measure progress on mitigating inputs to climate change. However, cities and counties are relying more and more on qualitative emissions reduction goal setting,focusing less on measuring gases and more on setting targets that have an emissions benefit. The Council resolution to install 1 MW of solar arrays in Lake Oswego by 2020 is an excellent example of a qualitative target, with a quantitative emissions reduction co-benefit. Cities like Lake Oswego,that are part of regional transportation networks and implementers of Statewide policies and goals have little room for drastic emissions reductions. Neighboring cities like Milwaukie have found the right balance-setting targets, 9 with qualitative goals and actions to help get there that can be efficiently and successfully completed using the local government and community resources available. SETTING A TARGET Instead of setting quantitative targets,the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan is a series of achievable actions and goals that will have benefits both in climate mitigation and adaptation. As of December 2019,the Earth's atmospheric CO2 was 411 ppm (Mauna Loa Observatory Data, NOAA).To avoid the irreversible impacts from climate change to life on Earth, atmospheric CO2 must be kept below 450 ppm, as recommended by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).At our current rate of emissions,we are on target to reach 900 ppm by 2100 unless significant reductions are made to reach carbon neutrality by 2050, followed by carbon negativity- pulling greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere through soils, photosynthesis, and future technologies. Clackamas County is currently partnering with The Good Company to complete a greenhouse gas emissions inventory for cities in the County, including Lake Oswego.The inventory may be complete by June 2020, with a county wide Climate Action Plan complete by the end of 2021.The findings of the GHG inventory will be incorporated into the Sustainability and Climate Action Plan and may result in updates to our emissions reduction targets. Lake Oswego's sustainability and climate action goals are what is considered the baseline by the IPCC and climate scientists to help reach carbon neutrality by the IPCC date of 2050: • By 2035, Lake Oswego's buildings will have no net emissions from electricity use. • By 2045, Lake Oswego's buildings will have no net emissions from onsite combustion of fuels. • By 2050, Lake Oswego will reach carbon neutrality through reduce or offsetting our carbon emissions from buildings, transportation, and manufacturing and disposal of products within the City. a Alt RS 1.4 _ k 411M1.- Solar array on the roof of the water treatment plant;City owned EVs charging at City Hall ACTION TIMELINE ( 10 ) The Sustainability and Climate Action Plan has Short Term actions (1-2 years), Mid-Term actions (3-5 years), and Long-Term actions (6-10 years). Many of the short-term actions are already underway.There are also a number of actions that are Ongoing, meaning that they are part of our operations or are tasks that will be repeated overtime. Many of these are small programs that work alongside existing processes.The timeline for implementing the plan is as follows: Short Term Actions(1-2 years)-14 Actions Transportation Actions: 2 Energy Efficiency Actions:4 Waste Reduction Actions: 3 Natural Resource Actions: 2 Employee Program Actions: 3 Climate Change Adaptation Actions: 3 Mid Term Actions(3-5 years)—24 Actions Transportation Actions: 6 Energy Efficiency Actions:4 Water Conservation Actions: 2 Natural Resource Actions: 1 Waste Reduction Actions: 2 Public Education Actions: 1 Toxics Reduction Actions: 3 Climate Change Adaptation Actions: 5 Long Term Actions(6-20 years)—9 Actions Transportation Actions: 5 Energy Efficiency Actions: 1 Climate Change Adaptation Actions: 3 Ongoing Actions—15 Actions Transportation Actions: 2 Energy Efficiency Actions:3 Water Conservation Actions: 2 Natural Resource Actions: 2 Waste Reduction Actions: 2 Public Education Actions:2 Employee Program Actions: 2 ( 11 ) The actions will be led by either the City, Boards and Commissions, or Community groups.There are further actions recommended for residents,which are entirely voluntary, and meant to provide some guidance for individuals on how they can participate in reducing emissions in their own lives. Each year, a progress report on the Plan will be presented to the City Council.The goals and actions in the plan may be adjusted based on new technology or resources.The Sustainability Advisory Board will play a central role in prioritizing annual work goals and summarizing progress. Under each category are a list of actions,with recommended implementation steps. Each action is assigned to either a City department, partnering organization, or community group.A recommended timeline is also included, as well as an indication as to whether it is a Climate Mitigation (CM) action, Climate Adaptation (CA) action, and whether it has an Equity benefit (EQ).The final column has a cost indication, broken down as follows: $ - under$10,000/year $$ -$10-000-$20,000/year $$$-$20,000-$50,000/year $$$$- more than $50,000/year Example: EV3:Work with developers to educate them on the Planning,Building, 5 years CM, $ benefits of providing EV charging stations at Sustainability,City multifamily housing developments and new parking Attorney,PGE EQ garages Implementation Actions: • Review existing ordinances and State building codes for residential and commercial charging • Partner with PGE to promote EV development incentives • Provide information on EV infrastructure incentives and funding programs to developers as part of application review process ( 12 ) Per the 2006 inventory,transportation accounts for nearly one-third of greenhouse gas(GHG)emissions in Lake Oswego. Half of those emissions are from cars and light trucks. Increasing ridership on public transit can further reduce GHG emissions and congestion as approximately 8,600 Lake Oswego residents commute to Portland for work while only 300-400 commute by bus. Encouraging more public transit use and biking is critical, as electric vehicles still add to area congestion on our roads and do not assist in decreasing commute times. Using alternative modes of transportation are a key element of sustainability, not only for their environmental benefits from improved air quality,fewer emissions, and less congestion, but also for their social and wellness benefits. Providing the infrastructure for Lake Oswego residents and workers to travel by bike, e-bike, foot, and carpooling can improve social bonds within the community, improve public health, and increase time spent outdoors in our beautiful community. Ensuring that residents have equitable access to electric vehicles and transit to allow for affordable travel to and from jobs and education is also critical to building a sustainable community, and this plan places special emphasis on increasing access for those in multifamily housing and those for whom affordability is a barrier to transportation. Supporting Plans and Policies: Lake Oswego Transportation System Plan, Lake Oswego Comprehensive Plan, Metro Climate Smart Strategy, Metro Regional Transportation Plan, Oregon Clean Fuels Program, PGE Integrated Resource Plan ELECTRIC VEHICLES The electric vehicle actions are modeled based on the analysis in Practical Climate Actions for Lake Oswego, with a goal of increasing the EV percentage of new vehicle sales from an estimated 2.5% in 2018 to 60% in 2040. One change made to the analysis is to model growth in total new car sales as increasing 0.92% per year, which is the average annual population growth in Lake Oswego from 2010- 2017 (Practical Climate Actions for Lake Oswego modeled total new car sales increasing 2% per year).To help meet this goal, it is important to put in the infrastructure to support EV adoption. The City of Lake Oswego already owns 4 EVs and several hybrids and plug-in hybrids.Technology is rapidly growing and EV technology is now commonplace in larger vehicles, including SUVs.The Adult Community Center has been able to take advantage of a senior center EV purchasing program to obtain an EV and charging station at no upfront cost and is looking into updating their van to an electric or hybrid option currently on the market. By 2030, it is expected that EV trucks will be widely available, given current trends. EV charging stations are available at City Hall, Public Works, and the Water Treatment Plant, and there are 2 free charging stations on A Avenue. Facilities has purchased additional 13 charging stations to be installed at the new City Hall for public and employee charging.To prepare for changing technology, Public Works employees are being trained in EV maintenance. Responsibility Timeline Climate/ Annual Equity Cost Benefits EV1:Where an electric(EV)version of the All Departments 10 Years CM $$$-$$$$ vehicle is available,the City must consider this option when purchasing a new vehicle.A life cycle analysis,feasibility and financial study must be undertaken,and gasoline powered vehicle only selected if it is shown through all analyses to be the best available choice. Implementation Actions: • Sustainability to provide data to all departments on available EVs through partnerships with PGE and Forth • Sustainability to work with Public Works and PGE to identify fleet vehicles to be converted and infrastructure needs for fleet electrification at city facilities • Explore purchasing options through public contracts and Climate Mayors EV purchasing collaborative • Calculate maintenance cost savings into purchasing decisions EV2:Install EV charging stations for City Facilities, 5 years $$ owned vehicles at majority of City facilities Sustainability and parks Implementation Actions: • Facilities to identify locations where charging stations can be installed affordably and work with PGE on infrastructure needs • Identify public purchasing options EV3:Work with developers and large Planning, 5 years CM, EQ $ landowners(churches,schools,etc.)to Building, educate them on the benefits of providing EV 14 Responsibility Timeline Climate/ Annual Equity Cost Benefits charging stations at multifamily housing Sustainability, developments and new parking garages PGE Implementation Actions: • Review existing ordinances and State building codes for residential and commercial charging • Partner with PGE to promote EV development incentives • Provide information on EV infrastructure incentives and funding programs to developers as part of application review process EV4:Community groups partner with EV Community 20 years CM, EQ $ organizations to increase market share of EVs Groups in Lake Oswego(goal of 60%market share by 2040) Implementation Actions: • Hold "Ride and Drive"events • Promote PGE incentives and grant programs for home charging • Provide data on incentives and rebates • Inform residents of EV purchase credits, incentives,and used vehicle markets EVS:Partner with PGE to expand residential Sustainability, 4 years CM, EQ $ charging opportunities PGE Implementation Actions: • Increase awareness of"EV-ready" incentives for new construction 15 TRANSIT AND CARPOOLING/CAR SHARING OPTIONS Taking the bus is not the only option for Lake Oswego commuters. Carpooling and car sharing will become easier through the use of new apps and the growth of the sharing economy.These modes are particularly useful for the "last mile"-connecting transit users to their homes. As the City of Lake Oswego does not manage the transit network, increasing collaboration with outside agencies and organizations like Tri-Met, Frog Ferry, and Metro is needed to reach the goal of transitioning more single occupancy drivers towards other modes. City support for technological development of apps and other online services to connect commuters will also be important. Responsibility Timeline Climate/ Annual Equity Cost Benefits TR1:Advocate for additional funding to improve CMO, Planning, 10 years CM, EQ $ bus shelters within the City Tri-Met, Engineering Implementation Actions: • Upgrade bus shelters to be weather resistant with paved sidewalk surfaces • Identify infrastructure needs to update the Transit Center, including road, sidewalk, and Lake Oswego network connections • Engage in Tri-Met's bus electrification process • Work closely with Tri-Met to advocate for improved bus service to Lake Oswego TR2: Identify locations for additional Park&Ride CMO, Planning, 5 years EQ $-$$ Facilities and improve usage of existing Engineering locations. Implementation Actions: • Complete analysis of current Park and Ride usage TR3: Partner with organizations looking to CMO,Community 5-10 CM, EQ $ provide additional new transit options to Lake Groups,Transit years Oswego Organizations, Metro, ODOT Implementation Actions: 16 Goal Responsibility Timeline Climate/ Annual Equity Cost Benefits • Continue work with Frog Ferry commuter water taxi on service to Portland • Support demand responsive services to employers • Support community proposals for carpooling and other ride-sharing options • Investigate EV Car Sharing programs for multifamily developments(eg., Envoy) TR4: Partner with LOSD to create Safe Routes to Sustainability, 5 years CM, EQ $$ School and Walking School Bus days LOSD, Police, Engineering, Community Groups TR5: Promote Tri-Met business programs to Sustainability, TR5 CM, EQ $ provide transit passes to Lake Oswego Tri-Met, employers Community Groups TR6:Continue to provide Universal Transit Human Ongoing CM, EQ $$$ passes to City employees Resources, Finance TR7:City to develop employee ride-sharing Sustainability, IT 2 years CM, EQ $ forum to reduce single car occupancy commute rate BICYCLE OPTIONS Practical Climate Actions for Lake Oswego identifies utilitarian biking as a recommended action.The bicycle measure analysis is based on the report Moving Cooler', which identifies typical percentages of trips by bicycle for different population densities and levels of bicycle amenities.Two different scenarios are examined.The first would require about 40 miles of bicycle lanes or paths throughout Lake Oswego, 3 Cambridge Systematics, Inc. Moving Cooler:An Analysis of Transportation Strategies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions—Technical Appendices.Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute,October,2009 ( 17 as well as secure bicycle parking, and availability of short-term bike rentals (such as Biketown). The second scenario is the same, but would require about 80 miles of bike lanes or paths.The first scenario is estimated to have the result that about 2.7%of all trips will be taken by bicycle, with an emissions reduction of 796 MTCO2e.The second scenario is estimated to result in 5%of all trips by bicycle,with an emissions reduction of 1,558 MTCO2e. Go: Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Annual Benefits Cost BK1: Implement community bike share CMO, CAO, 5 years CM, EQ $$$ program Community Groups, Implementation Actions: Sustainability • Seek funding/program partner • Investigate policy infrastructure (ordinances, etc) needed BK2:As identified in Transportation Safety Planning, 5-10 years CM $$$-$$$$ Plan,construct bike lanes and designated Engineering, bike routes within Lake Oswego Transportation Advisory Board BK3: Provide improved bike facilities for Facilities,CMO 1 year $$-$$$ City staff and visitors to City Hall(showers, safe bike storage rooms) WHAT CAN YOU DO? • Sign up for the Get There app to arrange carpooling at work and find rides in your community! • Use the Tri-Met website to learn how to connect bike and transit trips to get around town. • Buy carbon offsets for airline travel • Submit public comment on Tri-Met transit proposals • Use the school bus or walk to school instead of driving • Consider buying an electric, plug in hybrid electric,or hybrid vehicle. Or an e-bike! Look at the Oregon Clean Vehicle Rebate Program for incentives • Talk to your employer about telecommuting and video conferencing when possible • Install EV charging stations at your business • Reduce idling time with your personal vehicle, and encourage a no idling policy for your business fleet • Attend the EV Fair to learn more about electric vehicle options • Lay conduit for future EV charging infrastructure as part of garage and parking projects ( 18 ) The energy consumed to power homes, schools, and workplaces in Lake Oswego accounts for more than 20 percent of GHG emissions in Lake Oswego, based on the 2012 emissions inventory undertaken by The Good Company. Over the past few years,the City has undertaken several projects to reduce energy consumption in its own facilities and infrastructure. LED lighting with occupancy controls has replaced fluorescent and incandescent lighting in the majority of City buildings. Certain high usage facilities, like the Indoor Tennis Center, have seen dramatic decreases in energy use and expenditures. LED streetlight upgrades have reduced annual electricity costs by approximately$180,000.As part of their renovations, the Lake Oswego Water Treatment Plant and Public Works facilities have new rooftop solar arrays, as will the new City Hall when it is constructed. The High Performance Buildings Guidelines 2015 are used in the Request for Proposals (RFP) process for new City facilities,though work needs to be done to ensure that energy efficient upgrades beyond what is required by the state building code are not value-engineered out of the plans.As a community, working towards Net Zero greenhouse gas emission construction should remain a primary goal. Working with those populations typically overlooked in incentive programs- renters, low income homeowners, non-English speakers, and the elderly-will be an important focus in realizing the benefits of the actions listed below. Supporting Plans and Policies: Lake Oswego Comprehensive Plan, Lake Oswego Resolution 16-28, City o Lake Oswego High Performance Buildings Guidelines, Oregon State Building Code, Oregon Energy Plan, Metro Climate Smart Strategy SOLAR INSTALLATIONS This action looks at the total potential if solar panels were installed on all suitable roof space (residential and commercial) in Lake Oswego.The potential is estimated using the Google Project Sunroof tool. Project Sunroof estimates solar potential for many cities and zip codes across the US.The tool cannot(as of 3/27/2019) provide an estimate for the city boundaries of Lake Oswego, but it can provide an estimate for zip codes 97034 and 97035. Not all roof area identified by the tool will actually be suitable for solar installation.This analysis assumes that 80%of potential for flat roofs and 50%of the potential for sloped roofs could be met.This would result in generation of 100,000 MWh annually from rooftop solar. In 2016,the Lake Oswego City Council passed Resolution 16-28 adopting a solar power generation output goal of 1 Megawatt by the year 2021. At the time,there were 65 rooftop solar installations in the City. Since the passage of this resolution, however, no direct action has been taken to assist in reaching this goal and no data has been collected on progress towards it.The actions provided here may help to move the City closer towards reaching this goal. 19 Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Annual Benefits Cost SO1:Work with businesses,LOSD, Sustainability, 1 year CM, EQ $$-$$$ Community Groups,and businesses to Community meet the City's 1 Megawatt solar goal Groups (Resolution 16-28) by 2021 Implementation Actions: • Assess current progress on goal and develop methodology for collecting data on installations(first year) • Reach out to property managers and building owners with large roofs with solar capacity, identified through Project Sunroof • Identify opportunities to include solar as part of Net Zero design in school and City new construction or major(more than 75%) renovations • Community groups to pursue opportunities for community solar installations S02:Partner with Clackamas County to Sustainability, 2 years $ recognize"solar champions"as part of the Clackamas Leaders in Sustainability program County, Community Groups S03:Consider fee reductions and educate Planning, 3 years CM $$ homeowners on prescriptive path option Building,SAB for installing PV systems and available incentives ENERGY EFFICIENCY FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION Executive Order 17-20 instructs the State of Oregon to adopt a residential building code equivalent to the US Department of Energy (US DOE) Net Zero Ready standard by no later than October 2023. Rather than analyzing additional actions for the City,this action looks at the impact in Lake Oswego of this change to the state code. Building codes are enforced at the local level, so ensuring Lake Oswego building department staff are effectively trained through the State Building Codes Division to enforce the new code will be important to ensure the savings are realized. 20 ) Energy efficiency of homes is measured using the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index.This index gives predicted energy use as a percentage of that for a typical home built to comply with the 2006 energy code. US DOE estimates that homes built to the Net Zero Ready standard have a HERS rating in the low to mid 50s--that is they use about 55%as much energy as a typical 2006 new home, or a 45% reduction in energy use. Advances in the model energy code, particularly in the 2009 and 2012 versions, have already brought new homes to a HERS rating of about 60--a 40% reduction since 2006.Therefore, the Net Zero Ready standard is estimated to result in about an additional 7.5%energy use reduction, compared to new homes under the current energy code, saving an additional 640 kWh and 24 therms of natural gas per home per year, on average. Note that this analysis is based on comparing a home built under the expected new Oregon energy code to one built under the current Oregon energy code.The impact of building a new home,whether on vacant land or replacing an existing home,would be included in a business-as-usual scenario, and only the difference between the two standards for that new home is considered here. Based on permit data for FY 2015-16 and FY 2016-17, on average 92 new homes are built in Lake Oswego each year. At this rate, 1,564 new homes will be built between 2023 (when the new code takes effect) and 2040. Energy savings in these new homes will result in an emissions reduction of 380 MTCO2e. Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Annual Cost Benefits EN1:Hold Home Energy Rating System ODOE,Sustainability, 1 year $ Workshop for City Staff Building EN2:Train staff on energy code updates Building Ongoing $ as they are released EN3:Update"High Performance Sustainability 4 years CM, CA $-$$ Building Guidelines for City Facilities" Implementation Actions: • Incentivize builders to follow standards of existing green building certification programs • Incentivize use of energy performance benchmarking to track efficiency of new commercial buildings EN4:Target an Energy Use Intensity CMO, Redevelopment, Ongoing CM, CA $$$$ (EUI)of 22(Net Zero)for all new City Facilities,Sustainability 21 ) facility and redevelopment construction projects. Implementation Actions: • Partner with Energy Trust of Oregon to participate in Path to Net Zero program on new construction • Include goal in construction RFP's to avoid lower EUI being "value engineered"out of projects • Work with PGE during design stage for analysis around electrification and impact on GHG emissions ENERGY EFFICIENCY FOR EXISTING CONSTRUCTION The energy savings potential for existing buildings is estimated based on creation of an 'information gateway' to help residents understand and access energy efficiency options.This represents a targeted effort to provide residents with information about energy efficiency options, incentives and financing options.The potential impact of such an effort is drawn from the California Energy Commission report Existing Buildings Energy Efficiency Action Plan.' Participants would adopt a variety of actions, such as insulation, high efficiency HVAC, and appliances.The report assumes adoption rates for these actions based on an existing energy audit program from Southern California Edison, and estimates an average annual savings of 619 kWh and 56 therms per household. Across all Lake Oswego residents,this results in an emissions reduction of 6,667 MTCO2e. Heat pumps are an effective way to reduce emissions from the home. Census data shows that about 62% of households in Lake Oswego currently heat with natural gas, and a few hundred heat with fuel oil or propane.The high cost of fuel oil and propane make those homes particularly good targets for conversion to heat pumps.The analysis assumes that 50% of households using natural gas,fuel oil or propane would convert to heat pumps by 2040.The Energy Trust of Oregon currently provides rebates for replacement of electric resistance heat with heat pumps, but these are not available to households currently using natural gas, heating oil or propane. 4 California Energy Commission, California's Existing Buildings Energy Efficiency Action Plan- 2016 Plan Update https://efiling.energy.ca.gov/getdocument.aspx?tn=214801 (accessed 4 October 2019) ( 22 ) Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Annual Cost Benefits EC1:Complete an Energy Inventory of City Sustainability, 4 years CM $$ Facilities Facilities, Energy Trust of Oregon Implementation Actions: certified contractors • Partner with local organizations to complete energy audits and efficiency upgrades • Make results available to staff and City Council • Use results to work with Facilities team to develop a best practices guide for staff • Participate in PGE demand response programs EC2: Educate community members on energy Sustainability, Ongoing CM, EQ $ savings Library, Community Implementation Actions: Groups • Community groups partner with local building industry to host home energy fairs • Provide information to residents about energy efficiency options, Energy Trust incentives,and PGE programs • Partner with the Library to host workshops and education sessions EC3: Increase access to energy audits for Sustainability, 5 years CM, EQ $ residents to encourage home energy upgrades Library Implementation Actions: • Provide information to residents about how they can get a home energy audit • Partner with audit organizations • Partner with organizations to facilitate seismic and energy upgrades to building stock • Investigate providing home energy audit tools in Library of Things 23 EC4: Encourage transition to high-efficiency Sustainability 10 years CM $$ heat pumps through potential incentive Advisory Board program Implementation Actions: • Provide information about heat pumps in energy efficiency education materials,especially for households currently using fuel oil or propane and multifamily housing using electric resistance heating with information about Energy Trust incentives and financing options ECS: Examine the effectiveness of Portland's Sustainability, 2 years $ Energy Score requirement for sellers of single Building family homes,and consider a similar program Implementation Actions: • Staff to participate in regional workshops on home energy scoring, run by ODOE • Collaborate with City of Portland staff on program development to make efficient use of staff time WHAT CAN YOU DO? • Purchase renewable energy for your home through PGE's Green Source program • Participate in PGE demand response programs • Enroll in NW Natural's Smart Energy program • Look into installing a smart thermostat • Switch out your lightbulbs with LEDs and use energy saving faucets and shower heads • Explore Energy Trust of Oregon incentives for more energy efficient appliances,water heaters, and furnaces and always purchase ENERGY STAR labelled appliances • Wash your clothes in cold water • Do a home energy audit to find out how weatherize and insulating your home can help save energy • Choose lighter color roofing • Consider downsizing your home • Map your home on Google Sunroof to investigate your potential for solar arrays ( 24 ) For many people,the impacts of climate change are most immediately felt through the availability of fresh water. Climate projections for the Willamette Valley in the Fourth Oregon Climate Assessment Report 20195 indicate a change in how precipitation will fall towards the middle of the century. While overall precipitation is not predicted to increase or decrease drastically, it's how and when it falls that will have an impact on communities like Lake Oswego. Stronger winter storms with more precipitation falling in short bursts can lead to flooding and erosion instead of percolation into groundwater and aquifers. Lake Oswego relies on the Clackamas River for its drinking water and the River relies on an annual snowpack to replenish the aquafers that provide long-term flow support during the drier summers. There are no storage reservoirs allowed on the basin, so all of the water that is accessible is produced though an unenhanced and natural system.The Cascade snowpack has been steadily declining, and is predicted to decline more rapidly particularly at lower elevations as winter snows are replaced with rainfall. Without it, water shortages are to be expected. During the summer,when Lake Oswego typically sees minimal rainfall, residential and commercial demands increase for landscape irrigation and recreational uses.This annual phenomenon occurs simultaneously as Clackamas River water levels begin to decline. Those diminished river levels have a detrimental impact on temperature and flows that are vital to sustaining vulnerable Lamprey, Salmon and Steelhead runs. Precipitation is predicted to be lower with longer, hotter, and drier periods forecasted in the future. Lake Oswego has implemented and maintained an active Water Conservation program for the last 12 years. It is designed to minimize as much as possible the City's impacts on the River.The City partners with other municipalities and organizations in the region that are stewards of this river and water management issues in general.The program offers water saving literature and accessories at no cost to Lake Oswego water customers.The City provides faucet aerators, shower heads, hose timers and a host of other useful items. In addition to these, since 2009,the city has maintained a toilet and washing machine replacement incentive. In 2008, all City building restrooms were retrofitted with low flow toilets, urinals and metered faucets. Another offering in the current suite of incentives is providing free audits to homeowners and commercial customers.The Audit program provides one on one consultations with the Water Conservation Specialist and provides individual recommendations for equipment and strategies specifically tailored to that customer's needs. 5 Mote, P.W., J. Abatzoglou, K.D.Dello, K. Hegewisch, and D.E. Rupp, 2019: Fourth Oregon Climate Assessment Report. Oregon Climate Change Research Institute. http://occri.net/ocar4 (accessed September 9 2019) 25 ) Lake Oswego Water Conservation 2001-20018(source:Kevin McCaleb, City of Lake Oswego) Usage Participants/Total Usage(CCF) Gallons (CCF) Gallons Reduction Gallons %savings 2001-2009 2010-2018 (CCF) All Participants:2041 2131318 1594225864 1944304 1454339392 -189718 -141909064 9.00% Indoor:1087 1643017 1228976716 1520647 1137443956 -122370 -91532760 7.50% Outdoor:375 531116 397274768 496876 371663248 I -34240 -25611520 6.00% Audits:255 367078 274574344 310660 232373680 -56418 -4224704 16.00% Totals 4672529 3495051692 4272487 3195820276 -402746 -20540080 9.63% In addition to these tools,the City implemented a tiered rate structure in 2009 to encourage better management of water by our customers.The City's Water Conservation program was presented an award from the Oregon Department of Water Resources for having one of the best water conservation programs in the state. We've done well but many more opportunities exist going forward. Better partnering with other departments within the City to provide input and raise awareness for the need for implementing more efficient landscape design, irrigation systems and stormwater detention/retention facilities is one area that needs more support.A proposal for a new wastewater treatment facility offers an opportunity to utilize reclaimed water on three City Parks as well as potentially offering reclaimed irrigation water to residential and business customers along a pipe route that would parallel the Willamette River along the Eastern portion of the City.The possibility of utilizing treated recycled water from a treatment plant to irrigate Foothills, Roehr and George Rogers parks could reduce Clackamas River Water usage by 8,000,000 gallons or more annually; the majority of those savings occurring during the summer when river flows are low.A demonstration Garden is being proposed at the Trolley station on State St.The garden would demonstrate native and drought adaptable plantings as well as demonstrate the use of both passive and active water harvesting techniques. The Automatic Meter Reading program will provide real-time water usage information to homeowners and alert the City and homeowners to potential leaks, saving water and money at the same time. Moving forward,there is great potential to expand the use of water saving and harvesting technologies in our buildings.Additional technological implementations in this system could allow water monitoring of mainlines during low usage periods to help identify and locate leaks in the infrastructure and reduce breaks; allowing for more proactive preventive maintenance of critical infrastructure. Supporting Plans and Policies: Water Management and Conservation Plan,Storm water Management Manual 26 Goal Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Annual Cost Benefits WC1:Explore technologies that can reclaim Water Ongoing CM,CA $$ water,harvest grey water,rain water,and Conservation, energy waste at City facilities LOWTP, Parks, Facilities Implementation Actions: • Rainwater harvest demonstration project, planned for FY 20-22 Water Conservation Program • Irrigation water audits conducted for City facilities and greenspaces • Use of centrally controlled ET irrigation systems in Parks and other City facilities • Include Parks in conversations about using reclaimed water for irrigation • Allow for use of greywater in City facility plumbing WC2:Increase promotion of free water audits Water 5 years $-$$ and continue to provide high efficiency water Conservation fixtures to residents.Educate residents on incentives to buy water efficient appliances. Expand Automatic Meter Reading program. Implementation Actions: • Host informational sessions on water conservation at Library • Investigate ways to expand free water audit program to meet demand (eg; grant funding for additional temporary staff) • Identify funding for expansion of AMR program to meters larger than 1" 27 ) WC3:Install Energy Star certified plumbing and Water Ongoing $$ other low water usage technology in all City Conservation, facilities to reduce water usage Facilities Implementation Actions: • Install dual-flush handles on all toilets • Install sensors on sinks • Refer to Energy Star's"Most Efficient" list released annually before purchasing plumbing appliances WC4:Explore technologies to reduce water Water 4 years $$-$$$ losses across the water distribution system. Treatment Plant Implementation Actions: • Expand leak detection program for the water system to address distribution system water loss of 20%. • Refer to Water Management and Conservation Plan WHAT CAN YOU DO? • Participate in the Automatic Meter Reading Program • Set up a consultation with the City's Water Conservation program • Install low flow,water efficient appliances,faucets, and shower heads • Reduce irrigation needs by planting drought tolerant plants • Put in a rainwater collection barrel for landscape watering ( 28 ) PROTECT NATURAL RESOURCES Lake Oswego benefits from having an ample tree canopy.The healthy canopy present in the city helps to regulate temperatures, provide a natural stormwater filter, and maintain biodiversity. However,the ranges of several 'preferred' species in the city may not be compatible with the future climate of Lake Oswego. Some species will be on the extreme edge of what they can tolerate,while others will no longer be able to grow here. While the loss of iconic species native to the area is difficult and measures should be taken to preserve what currently exists, planting guidelines may need to shift in order to avoid investing in trees that will be less likely to thrive. Based on climate projections, it is anticipated that Lake Oswego's climate in 80 years will be similar to that of Sacramento, California under the current emissions scenario.Thus,to maintain a healthy tree canopy, species that can tolerate that climate will need to be planted. It will also be important to consider increasing risk of wildfire and ensure that our canopy remains healthy and not overcrowded, includes trees that are more tolerant to wildfire, while protecting defensible space around buildings.Tree selection should also take into account tree stability and susceptibility to disease.The Parks and Recreation Department already follows Integrated Pest Management practices to help protect Lake Oswego's biodiversity. Although not the source of drinking water for the community, maintaining water quality in our watersheds will be important for maintaining quality of life and recreation in the city.The possibility of harmful algal blooms is increased with warmer water temperature. In recent summers,the lake has been near critical thresholds'for algal blooms, based on data provided by the Oswego Lake Corporation. While the air temperature heating the lake cannot be controlled, one significant source of increased heat to the lake that can be controlled is what enters via stormwater runoff. Stormwater generated from warm surfaces such as concrete and asphalt will carry that heat into receiving water bodies. If it can be infiltrated into the ground it will be cooled and released slowly into the lake. The City has an active stormwater management and monitoring program in place, encouraging the use of bioswales and other natural stormwater filtering infrastructure on our streets and roads. Continuing and expanding this program will be critical for minimizing harmful runoff. Supporting Plans and Policies Stormwater Management Manual, Comprehensive Plan, Parks Plan 2025, Lake Oswego and Clackamas Natural Hazards Mitigation Plans 6 Center for Earth and Environmental Science, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. What Causes Algal Blooms? https://cees.iupui.edu/research/algal-toxicology/bloomfactors (accessed September 9 2019) ( 29 ) Goal Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Benefits NR1: Research tree species that adapt well to changing Parks, Public 4 years CA climate conditions and are fire resistant Works Implementation Actions: • Attend educational opportunities and refer to reference materials and publications to learn from professionals about climate change impacts on trees in the Pacific Northwest • Consider amending the Right Tree in the Right Place brochure • Monitor public trees through street and park tree inventories to inform ongoing adaptive management NR2: Update Urban Forestry Report in 2021 Planning 1 year CA Implementation Actions: • Establish benchmarks • Incorporate a canopy analysis into the report and compare to other jurisdictions. • Plan to do a periodic update every 5 years NR3:Continue to assess and revise stormwater management Engineering Ongoing CA goals and guidance. NR4: Prioritize high water quality in Lake Oswego watersheds Engineering, Ongoing CA from impacts from increased water temperature Lake Corp, Community, Implementation Actions: Public Works • Minimize stormwater runoff to the lake from heated surfaces such as asphalt and concrete • Continue to invest in bioswales and other natural stormwater infrastructure • Maintain bioswales and drainage infrastructure in the public Right of Way 30 ) NRS: Develop a Natural Resources Dashboard Planning, 2 years CA Parks, IT Implementation Actions: • Compile information on Backyard Habitat program, land restoration,Tree Canopy, Reducing toxins, Parks Management,and Water Quality(MS4 Permit and TMDL Plan implementation measures) WHAT CAN YOU DO? • Use the Right Tree Right Place guide to plant climate adapted trees to provide shade and cooling • Choose permeable surfaces instead of pavement wherever possible • Look at climate and biodiversity friendly planting programs, like Audubon's Backyard Habitat program • Maintain trees to reduce their exposure to damage from storms • Use organic and low-toxicity planting products to minimize pollution to watersheds • Follow City guidelines on minimizing toxic runoff into storm drains from activities like car washing, pool draining, and pest control ( 31 ) REDUCE EXPOSURE TO TOXINS A 2019 Staff Sustainability Survey(Appendix 5) raised exposure to poor indoor air quality as a chief concern of City employees.The City's facilities department has been committed to purchasing materials that are low in or absent of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and educating employees in City Hall about how to reduce exposure to mold, odors, and allergens. However,the survey showed concern about exposure to toxins across several facilities, thus it is important that efforts continue to be made to improve indoor air quality. Lake Oswego residents have also raised concerns about exposure to emissions from gas powered lawn equipment,which are heavily used in neighborhoods and have a quantifiable impact on public health and greenhouse gas,VOC, and criteria pollutant(NOx, CO, PM) emissions'. Concerns about criteria pollutant emissions from diesel powered construction equipment have also been raised. Nationwide, communities have explored a variety of strategies to limit these emissions and Lake Oswego has the opportunity to build on the work that has been done in this area.To limit exposure to toxins in our parks and natural areas,the Parks Department uses pest control products and fertilizers that use very low concentrations of chemical, to avoid impacts to human and animal health. Supporting Plans and Policies: Parks Plan 2025, Integrated Pest Management Plan Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Benefits TO1:Communicate Facilities purchasing policy to all Sustainability, 3 years departments to ensure that all materials ordered are Facilities low in volatile organic compounds(VOCs)and high in recyclability. TO2:Obtain EcoBiz certification for Motor Pool and Public Works 5 years Parks Maintenance facilities and operations 'Jamie L Banks, Robert McConnell. "National Emissions from Lawn and Garden Equipment". UEnvironmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015- 09/documents/banks.pdf(Accessed September 10 2019) ( 32 ) T03:Investigate strategies to reduce exposure to Sustainability, 3 years CM, EQ emissions from gas powered lawn equipment and Parks, Public diesel construction equipment Works, Facilities Implementation Actions: • Collaborate with local and regional governments on researching options to minimize or eliminate emissions • Ensure that any regulatory action does not unfairly harm businesses • Explore opportunities for Oregon DEQ Air Quality grants to fund incentives to switch to battery powered equipment • Support Parks to continue to expand use of battery powered lawn equipment for maintenance • Add electric lawn equipment to Library of Things WHAT CAN YOU DO? • Consider switching your gas powered lawn equipment to electric options, and ask your landscaper to do the same • Be kind to your neighbors and don't use lawn equipment early in the morning, in the evenings,or on poor air quality days • Select plant-based cleaning products for your home, property,and car • Buy low to no VOC furniture,carpets, and paint for your home • Properly dispose of hazardous waste at Metro South Transfer Station and Metro Paint recycling centers • During cold weather, use sand and non-toxic de-icer options • Keep air quality clean by minimizing wood fires during winter inversions, drive less on poor air quality days(consult AirNow for up to date information) • Take off shoes when entering your home,and wipe shoes off when entering a business ( 33 ) REDUCE WASTE Waste reduction has been a focus of the City's sustainability program since its inception. However, recent changes to the recycling industry and increasing awareness of plastic pollution, and the shipment of waste to developing countries has resulted in public interest and additional attention on waste management. Reducing waste output requires a collective effort on behalf of individuals, government, and industry to educate, develop policy, and create alternatives. Lake Oswego was the first city in Clackamas County to offer curbside composting to its residents. It also has a lower recycling contamination rate than surrounding cities. A recently passed plastic bag ordinance remains one of the most comprehensive policies of its type in the state. However, consumption still remains high in Lake Oswego and with high consumption comes high disposal. In a 2012 Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Goods and Foods combined accounted for 38%of community greenhouse gas emissions.There are many promising opportunities to reduce waste in Lake Oswego, from the newly opened Library of Things at the Public Library,to having access to locally produced food at Luscher Farm, to commercial food waste composting policies. Businesses are also playing an important role in waste reduction by moving away from single use plastic serviceware to durable, or recyclable paper options. Working with our partners at Clackamas County, Metro, Republic Services, and community groups, Lake Oswego can edge closer to zero waste, reduce emissions, and reduce pollution of our natural resources. Supporting Plans and Policies: Metro Regional Waste Plan, Oregon Senate Bill 236 Recovery Goals, Oregon DEQ Materials Management Vision Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Benefits WR1: Explore pilot projects with franchised waste Sustainability, 2 years CM hauler to audit community waste output Republic Services WR2: Move to all paperless agenda packets for City City Recorder, 1 year CM Council and Boards and Commissions meetings Boards and Commissions WR3:City to purchase solar self-compacting garbage Facilities, Parks, 4 years cans for outdoor City owned facilities Public Works 34 Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Benefits WR4:City to work with businesses to decrease the Sustainability, 2 years usage of single use hospitality items Community Groups Implementation Actions: • Select pilot group of business owners to test durable alternatives to single use plastic and reusable dishware exchange program • Provide educational workshops on consumer options • Partner with outside organizations to provide materials, run workshops,and work with business owners on reducing reliance on single use items WRS:City to eliminate use of all single use plastic or CMO, Parks and 5 years "compostable"bioplastic serviceware(cutlery,cups, Recreation,City mugs,dishes,bags,and straws)at City run or Council, Boards sponsored events and meetings,including Boards and Commissions and Commissions and City Council,and replace with reusable,bamboo,wood,or paper alternatives compliant with Lake Oswego recycling guidelines by 2025. Implementation Actions: • Enforce requirement through Council resolution • Identify supply source to allow for easier purchasing • Ensure staff liaisons have tools to comply WR6:City to continue support for the Farmer's Parks and Ongoing Market and Community Supported Agriculture Recreation,Water program,while exploring additional opportunities Conservation, for community gardens,edible landscaping,and Community local food banks. Organizations Implementation Actions: • Continue partnership between CSA and Oregon Green Schools to bring more food from Luscher Farm to LOSD • Continue support for local food gleaning organizations, like Hunger Fighters ( 35 ) • Work with Water Conservation to develop demonstration garden that uses plants that filter stormwater,and are edible WR7:Support efforts to reuse,repair,and donate Sustainability, Ongoing CM items to minimize community contributions to the Library,Clackamas waste stream County, Community Implementation Actions: Groups • Continue to host Clackamas County Repair Fairs • Expand the Library program, "Library of Things" • Continue to shift focus of Community Clean Up Day from bulky waste disposal to donations to community organizations • Investigate holding community events that highlight reuse, such as Recycled Trash Fashion Show, Library talks, and hands-on workshops WHAT CAN YOU DO? • Calculate your household carbon footprint • Reduce food waste using tools like Clackamas County's Eat Smart,Waste Less resources • Shop at the Lake Oswego Farmers Market for local produce • Repair, reuse, and properly recycle durable goods • Use Lake Oswego's curbside composting program • Consult the City website for information on how to minimize single use plastic usage in your life • Reduce emissions by buying local • Use the Metro Recycle or Not website to learn how to properly recycle • Use the Lake Oswego Library's Library of Things to borrow what you don't need to buy • Buy secondhand goods, avoid "fast"fashion, and purchase items made from recycled material • Dispose of electronics properly through the Oregon E-Cycle program • Fix what you can before you replace it-attend Fix It Fairs at the Library ( 36 ) ENHANCE PUBLIC EDUCATION More than passing ordinances and resolutions, increasing educational opportunities for residents on topics related to sustainability will encourage changes in behavior and help individuals to feel empowered rather than overwhelmed. Using online tools and in person workshops and presentations, educational opportunities should be made accessible to all.A good example is the outreach program run through the Water Conservation department, which focuses on helping residents implement water saving practices and technologies in their homes and gardens.Through a mixture of on-site visits, videos, and publications, the water conservation program works to reach as many Lake Oswego residents as possible each spring and summer. Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Benefits PE1:Strategically highlight the sustainability Public Affairs, Ongoing elements of City projects through existing Sustainability communications and outreach channels. PE2: Identify opportunities to share value of Public Affairs, IT, 3 years sustainability efforts to community through new Sustainability communication channels Implementation Actions: • Create Sustainability Dashboard for website • Bi-annual Community Sustainability Survey • Make better use of social media to answer sustainability questions and publicize new programs PE3: Partner with outside organizations to host Sustainability, Ongoing sustainability education events for the community in Library, Parks public spaces Implementation Actions: • Hold presentations and talks at the Library on a semi-annual basis • Screen movies on sustainability topics • Invite organizations to hold meetings and panels in Lake Oswego 37 WHAT CAN YOU DO? • Attend workshops, lectures, and fairs to learn more about what you can do • Watch some of the documentaries available on Kanopy,through the Lake Oswego Library • Check out the City's Sustainability website,which has lots of information to help you learn! • Get your community or network to do an EcoChallenge through the NW Earth Institute • Talk to a Master Recycler or Master Gardener ( 38 ) CITY EMPLOYEE HEALTH AND ENGAGEMENT In 2019, City Staff were sent a survey on their awareness of city sustainability programs and asked to provide feedback on what they would like to see moving forward. Health and engagement are key elements of the triple bottom line approach to sustainability, as healthy habits often result in smaller carbon footprints. Indoor air quality, lighting, transportation, and individualized work schedules all offer co-benefits of bringing sustainability into the workplace while improving health and productivity. Many of the actions listed here were suggested by employees in the staff survey, or build on goals in previous sustainability plans. Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Benefits EE1:Deliver employee sustainability training to Sustainability Ongoing employees. Implementation Actions: • Tie sustainability topics into required employee health and safety training, and department meetings • Provide Employee Sustainability Guide to all new employees as part of HR onboarding • Distribute quarterly sustainability newsletter for employees • Hold quarterly sustainability training sessions for employees at rotating worksites EE2:Hold department trainings on Sustainability and Sustainability 1 year Climate Action Plan to ensure it is integrated into daily decision making EE3:Create online forum for employees to share Sustainability, HR, IT 1 year CM information about ridesharing,donating goods,and other free services EE4:Support use of active transportation by HR, Facilities, Ongoing CM employees to meet health,wellness,and Sustainability sustainability goals Implementation Actions: • Provide adequate shower and locker room facilities where possible • Provide secure bike storage facilities ( 39 ) Goal Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Benefits • Explore development of an e-bike program for employees to use to travel between worksites EE6:Reduce peak hour commuting by City HR, Department 2 years CM employees by next DEQ Employee Commute Options heads, IT reporting in 2022 Implementation Actions: • Help foster carpooling between employees • Provide information about best transit options to and from worksites 04 While the majority of this plan focuses on mitigating Lake Oswego's contribution to climate change, it is also important to recognize that adapting to climate change is necessary to protect our human and natural resources from the impacts of a changing climate.The City of Lake Oswego is relatively well positioned with regard to direct effects of climate change. Predictive models of the future climate can be used to inform the range of future possibilities that can be expected.There is little indication that the area will experience the same kind of extreme temperature and precipitation swings that are expected in some other regions of the country, however there is always a risk of those events occurring.The Fourth Oregon Climate Assessment indicates general warming and precipitation trends that will create conditions for increased wildfire, a decline in mountain snowpack, and changes to precipitation patterns;these are concerns to all Oregonians. Lake Oswego has a high capacity to deal with possible acute impacts of climate events that could impact life and property.The Lake Oswego Fire Department is prepared both in equipment and training to manage a wildfire within the City or surrounding natural areas.The Parks Department maintains vegetation growth to help minimize the risk of wildfire in parks and natural areas and managing the tree canopy will need to be an important part of that moving forward.The Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan gives Public Works and first responders clear guidance on managing flooding from high intensity precipitation events. City staff and the Sustainability Advisory Board have worked with consultants from ICLEI to review the projections of 21 temperature and precipitation metrics contained in the Temperate software application, specifically looking at possible impacts to Lake Oswego.The impact criteria chosen focused on threats to the quality of life and preservation of the character of Lake Oswego, which were consistently identified as highly important and potentially impacted by the changing climate.The specific threats identified were: • Maintaining the health and diversity of the forest in and around the community; • Water Quality within the lake; and • Diminished air quality from wildfire smoke, which was identified as an area of immediate concern. This is not an exhaustive list of the potential impacts to Lake Oswego from climate change, but the top three that have a high probability of occurring. Not included here is reduced availability of drinking water from a diminishing Cascade snowpack, as those actions are included in the Water Conservation section above. The specific actions listed below will help the City to develop a systematic response to wildfire smoke events. Beyond that, Lake Oswego will need to take steps to ensure the long-term integrity of the natural assets of the community as they slowly adapt to anticipated changes in average temperature and precipitation. 41 ) The following suggested actions are highlighted as general strategies to adapt to climate change through largely existing mechanisms and without requiring significant funding. Some of the elements, such as a Wildfire Smoke Response Plan, can help support requests for external funding for larger capital- intensive resilience projects. Supporting Plans and Policies: Lake Oswego Emergency Operations Plan, Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan, Metro Climate Smart Strategy, The Oregon Climate Change Adaptation Framework, Clackamas Community Wildfire Protection Plan, Oregon Community Wildfire Protection Plans GENERAL ADAPTATION GOALS Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Benefits GAL Update Disaster Management policies and Emergency 10 years CA procedures in preparation for more frequent extreme Management, weather events Finance, CMO, Police, Fire, Parks Implementation Actions: • Integrate National Climate Assessment and Oregon Climate Assessment data and findings into Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan and Flood Mitigation Plan • Expand policies and procedures to look beyond initial 48 hour response towards long- term adaptation • Demonstrate fiscal preparedness for post- disaster City functioning and meet requirements for Moody's climate preparedness assessment as part of City credit rating determination • Address emergency response needs related to impacts from climate change • Maintain City natural resources to both serve as greenscapes and cooling natural infrastructure while minimizing fire risk • Research and develop response plan to community health impacts from climate change and the capacity for treatment 42 GENERAL ADAPTATION GOALS Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Benefits GA2:Assess where new rules,policies,or programs All City 3 years CA are needed in advance of more frequent extreme Departments weather events Implementation Actions: • Continue to integrate discussions around climate impacts in updates to the Emergency Operations Plan and Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan • Investigate sufficiency of existing heating and cooling centers, disaster shelters,and use of community facilities such as the library as "second responder" resources • Minimize use of high emitting vehicles during poor air quality days,as identified by the Oregon DEQ • Invest in indoor recreation facilities and programming to maintain opportunities and quality of life for residents during periods of extreme heat,cold,and poor air quality • Continue use of fire-retardant bark in roadway medians GA3:Prepare community systems for long term Sustainability, Fire, 10 years CA, EQ climate and energy challenges including fuel Police, Parks, shortages,summer drought,increased storm Public Works, intensity,flooding,and declining air quality Water Conservation, Implementation Actions: Clackamas County • Provide continual outreach on energy and water conservation • Ensure first responders have resources to respond to increased heat related illnesses, including cardiovascular and respiratory ailments • Partner with organizations to reach residents to prepare at home for long duration (greater than 48 hours)extreme weather events • Ensure fewer emissions during poor air quality days by encouraging residents to drive less and avoid using gas powered landscaping equipment • Develop electric vehicle infrastructure to address both fuel shortages and poor air quality 43 GENERAL ADAPTATION GOALS Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Benefits • Invest in low-impact ecological stormwater solutions • Investigate battery storage options for solar arrays GA4:Update flood zone maps to incorporate climate Planning and 10 years CA, EQ change projections,following FEMA's lead in Building, establishing base flood elevations. Ensure Engineering, Parks development is flood resistant and does not create future climate equity issues. Implementation Actions: • Continue to update flood hazard regulations as required by FEMA • When redeveloping flood prone areas follow best practices to avoid additional impacts on vulnerable populations • Follow best practice for surface water management per City's stormwater management manual WILDFIRE SMOKE Smoke from wildfires around the Pacific Northwest have posed a health and recreational hazard to residents of Lake Oswego for the past few summers. Executive Order 19-01 established the Governor's Council on Wildfire Response, which specifically calls out the hazards posed to Oregonians from wildfire smoke and calls for more coordinated efforts and funding to support initiatives to address wildfire smoke through the state.The City should continue to monitor opportunities created through 19-01 to take advantage of funding for smoke mitigation programs. Though the City cannot control the frequency and intensity of these wildfires,there are specific actions that can be undertaken to minimize the disruption to the community from the smoke. Ensuring the health and wellbeing of populations most sensitive to dangerous air quality levels is the goal of having a wildfire smoke response plan.The actions listed below will help establish procedures for the City to take in case of extreme and long duration smoke events.These include establishing avenues of communication, changes to municipal operations to minimize exposure of workers and residents to poor air quality, and providing additional resources for sensitive populations.There are also guidelines to help residents learn to be prepared and protect themselves at home. 1 44 FOCUS:WILDFIRE SMOKE RESPONSE Responsibility Timeline Climate/Equity Benefits WS1:Work to identify populations that are City Manager's 5 years CA, EQ particularly sensitive to poor air quality and Office, Police, Fire particulate matter from wildfire smoke. Implementation Actions: • Communicate with Clackamas County Public Health and social service agencies to determine exposure levels and who may not have access to smoke-free environments • Partner with the Adult Community Center to provide outreach to senior citizens on the hazards of wildfire smoke,collect information on individuals needing assistance,and provide a facility for those needing a smoke-free space • Partner with Lake Oswego School District and childcare facilities to set guidelines for exposure for vulnerable youth WS2: Develop Education and Outreach materials about City Manager's 5 years CA, EQ the hazards of wildfire smoke and determine Office, Public communication channels Affairs Implementation Actions: • Collect fact sheets to provide to residents on care to take at home and while in the outdoors • Establish communication plan for periods of hazardous air quality from wildfire smoke,with particular focus on reaching vulnerable populations • Ensure residents understand the hazards from exposure to wildfire smoke 45 WS3: Determine City response actions to wildfire City Manager's 4 years CA, EQ smoke Office, Police, Fire, Public Affairs, Implementation Actions: Public Works, Parks • Use guidance from Oregon DEQ Air Quality to establish minimum particulate matter levels to trigger response • Response may include opening clean air shelters, postponing outdoor events and closures of parks,staff training,targeted outreach to sensitive populations, messaging through communication channels • Obtain N95 respirator masks to distribute to outdoor City workers and to sell at or below cost to members of the public • Establish connections with neighborhood associations to disseminate information WS4: Educate residents on steps they can take to Public Affairs, Fire 3 years CA reduce wildfire risk on their own property Implementation Actions: • Investigate using State resources and materials to distribute • Annual wildfire/smoke safety insert in HelloLO • Maintain wildfire/smoke safety resources website • Coordinate with the Library to hold safety events WHAT CAN YOU DO? • Develop an emergency plan and put together essential supplies and water for your home,vehicle, and office • Learn how to get to essential services while avoiding hazards • Whether renting or owning your home, be aware of risks from natural hazards to the home,as well as its ability to stay warm in winter and cool in the summer • Connect with your Neighborhood Association and look after your neighbors and those who are more vulnerable to extreme or long term weather events • Replace your home air filters to protect and improve indoor air quality • Keep windows closed, and children and pets indoors during periods of wildfire smoke or poor air quality ( 46 ) • Take Community Emergency Response Team certification courses at LO Fire Department • Develop a support network to help manage the long term physical and mental impacts of climate change ( 47 ) MOVING FORWARD The Sustainability and Climate Action Plan is a living document that will require periodic review and updates.The Sustainability Advisory Board will play a key role in doing this and will consider advancements in technology,financing, and community perspectives.The plan will continue to form the workplan for the City's sustainability program and through implementation of it, modifications will likely need to be made. The success of this plan and reaching our climate targets will require participation throughout the community-from City staff, to Boards and Commissions and City Council,to community groups, individuals, and even youth. A focus on climate equity will help to ensure that vulnerable populations are include in efforts to improve our community in the face of a changing climate by striving for everyone to have a safe and energy efficient home, access to affordable transportation, educational resources, and when needed, essential services during extreme weather events. Lake Oswego has so much to be proud of as a community. Our natural areas, parks,tree cover, and watersheds do so much to keep the air and water clean, our neighborhoods cool, and quality of life high. Strong neighborhood associations and community groups provide a strong social framework to help keep an eye on those in need and work every day to keep improving the city. Public services provided by the city provide excellent emergency response, educational outreach, and continually strive to improve infrastructure. The Sustainability and Climate Action Plan for Lake Oswego will not only help the city to address a changing world, but will ensure that Lake Oswego stays a green, livable, safe, and resilient community. Thank you to the following people who contributed to the development of this plan: The City Staff who worked on this plan between 2017-2020 under the leadership of City Managers Scott Lazenby and Martha Bennett. Sustainability Advisory Board Members:Chair Eliot Metzger, Chair Paul Soper, Richard Canaday, Karl Friesen,Stephanie Glazer,Jessica Green,Sarah Hussion, Allison Kim, Bob Sack, Kathleen Wiens, Maddie Champion, Ella Feathers,Anna-Marie Guenther Lake Oswego Sustainability Network Members: Lisa Adatto, Dorothy Atwood, Duke Castle 48 APPENDIX 1: DRAFT CLIMATE ACTION PLAN COVER NOTE: Practical Climate Actions for Lake Oswego Changes in our climate—locally and globally—demand a smart response. The enclosed six-page summary and supporting appendices outline ideas for action in Lake Oswego. The document is not meant to be a conventional or comprehensive "Climate Plan." Rather, the recommendations offered in the attached should feed directly into existing plans or updated policies or new strategies that can take shape in 2018. This is a document designed to help leaders in Lake Oswego do something now. Over the past several months, a team of advisors has compiled, reviewed, and prioritized a list of climate actions that make sense for Lake Oswego. The list draws on examples and experience from dozens of other small cities. It highlights emerging technologies and cost-effective strategies with multiple benefits for people in Lake Oswego. Importantly, it incorporates input from more than 60 local experts and stakeholders interested to see the city take smart action on climate change. The document provides near-term inspiration and long-term direction for three key actors in Lake Oswego, across four priority action areas. Priority Action Areas a) Z' v L City of z au a) Lake Oswego L 2 C U) cc a u w -o U Lake Oswego 06 ; `� School District o pi ito 0. . . cc a Community - 00 E 73 Groups LrCi ~ v z Respectfully submitted by: Coordinating Committee Chair: Eliot Metzger, City of Lake Oswego's Sustainability Advisory Board Representing the Lake Oswego Sustainability Network: Lisa Adatto, Duke Castle Representing the City of Lake Oswego's Sustainability Advisory Board: Stephanie Glazer, Bob Sack Representing the City of Lake Oswego:Jenny Slepian, Sustainability and Management Analyst Practical Climate Actions for Lake Oswego A vibrant future for Lake Oswego will mean taking on a global challenge with solutions that make sense locally. Climate change is already impacting daily life in Lake Oswego,with heat waves,floods,wind storms, and smoke from wildfires becoming more frequent. Any delays to global, national, and local responses to climate change will result in higher risks and long-term costs to our community (see Appendix A for more information). Credit rating agencies, for example, are now factoring climate change exposure and preparedness into cities' bond ratings. Fortunately, there are actions that can preserve the quality of life that so many of us enjoy in Lake Oswego—and ensure more residents in Lake Oswego can enjoy that lifestyle today and in the future. In that spirit,the City Council included among its 2017 goals an ambition to: Support the creation of a climate action plan based on advice from the Sustainability Advisory Board, consistent with Council policy direction. In 2017, our team of advisors—with input from more than 60 local experts and stakeholders—developed a summary of 10 high-level recommendations, with additional details provided in the pages that follow. Action Area High-Level Recommendations 1. Electrify transportation Transportation and Connectivity 2. Make public transit more convenient 3. Avoid energy waste Buildings and Energy 4. Make clean energy more accessible 5. Increase sustainable food options Consumption (Food and Materials) 6. Cut food waste in half 7. Extend useful life of clothing, electronics, building materials 8. Plan for new climate extremes Resources and Resilience 9. Manage water wisely 10. Preserve and enhance our forests and natural areas These recommendations are the product of a unique City-community collaboration. We—as representatives of the City of Lake Oswego, its Sustainability Advisory Board (SAB), and the Lake Oswego Sustainability Network— contributed 1,000+ hours in 2017 to identify opportunities for climate action. We reviewed climate plans from other cities, small and large, learning what has and has not worked elsewhere. We invited input from the community and look forward to more input as these ideas take shape. Innovative solutions to climate change will come from people taking action, here and elsewhere. We see three sources of leadership in Lake Oswego and have organized this summary to inspire action from each in 2018 and beyond. "Community Groups"=Lake Oswego citizen groups, in partnership with local and state organizations. There are non-profit organizations, local churches, and business coalitions interested to advance climate action. "City"=Council, Boards, Commissions, and relevant staff of the City of Lake Oswego.The City can develop and advance goals, policies, and plans that help preserve a high-quality of life in a changing climate. "LOSD"=Lake Oswego School District. Excellence in education will continue to define Lake Oswego.There are opportunities to advance climate action as the district upgrades its schools and prepares future leaders. Mar 20 2018 1 TRANSPORTATION AND CONNECTIVITY Actions that make it easier and cleaner to get to,from,and around Lake Oswego. We recommend Lake Oswego support electric vehicles, advocate for improved public transit,and advance connected pathways for walking and biking to help eliminate harmful tailpipe emissions. FAST FACTS(See Appendix C for additional detail and references) Transportation accounts for nearly one-third of greenhouse gas(GHG)emissions in Lake Oswego (see Appendix B). Half of those emissions are from cars and light trucks. Accelerating the market for electric vehicles(EVs)can reduce GHG emissions from Lake Oswego's cars and trucks by 60 percent by 2040. Increasing ridership on public transit can further reduce GHG emissions and congestion as approximately 8,600 Lake Oswegans commute to Portland for work while only 300-400 commute by bus. Recommendation 1:"Electrify"transportation.We recommend: • Community Groups engage local residents,with support from local electric vehicle(EV)organizations and manufacturers,to increase EV market share to at least 50 percent by 2030 and 60 percent by 2040. o Promote EVs at Lake Oswego car and boat shows in 2018 and 2019,with the goal to have at least 1,000 Lake Oswego residents test drive an EV before 2020. o Develop materials tailored to Lake Oswego that promote EVs and incentives, including$2,500 state rebates. Partner with the City to help disseminate EV information,for example via HelloLO. • The City(with guidance from Planning Commission,Transportation Advisory Board,SAB and Community Groups) develop policies and identify code updates to ensure sufficient EV charging infrastructure. For example, encourage EV incentives and code updates for parking lots/spaces,City facilities/employees, commercial buildings and homes. • The City update and implement its fleet procurement policy such that at least half of the City's fleet is EVs before 2030. For example,the city can explore and test electric motorcycles for the police. • LOSD evaluate the potential for using electric school buses when it renews its transportation contract in 2020. Recommendation 2: Make public transit more convenient.We recommend: • Community Groups partner with TriMet, Metro, Clackamas County and others to triple transit ridership by 2025. o Organize local businesses to petition TriMet for transit options to address employee commuting challenges. o Test and increase access to transit via Universal Bus Passes and innovative on-demand transit programs. • The City work with TriMet in 2018 to access available funds and implement proposals for increased service and additional bus shelters where needed (including upgrades to the Lake Oswego Transit Center on 4th Street). For example, provide additional park& ride facilities;and increase the frequency of service for Bus#35(including an express option)with a minimum of 15-minute headways during the weekdays. • The City(with Lake Oswego Chamber of Commerce and other business groups)study the potential benefits of a demand-responsive circulator or shuttle service,as proposed in the Lake Oswego Transportation System Plan. Survey Kruse Way commuters to understand demand and opportunity for additional transit service. • LOSD work with parents and Community Groups to facilitate at least one field trip(per school per year) or a "Transit Day"where students take a trip via TriMet. Other ideas to explore: 1. Create"Safe Routes to School"and "Complete Streets" (i.e., increased walkability and neighborhoods where local services are within 20 minutes by walking or biking). 2. Increase utilitarian biking(riding a bike instead of driving a car). As the City invests in bike and pedestrian pathways, it can expand options for residents and local employees with:efforts to support a bike path to Portland parallel to Highway 43 (while maintaining the option for a future rail line); new links between bike paths and transit;and bike sharing programs, including those offering electric bikes to "flatten"the hilly terrain of Lake Oswego. Mar 20 2018 2 BUILDINGS AND ENERGY Actions to improve the energy performance of homes,schools,and workplaces. We recommend options that Lake Oswego can initiate to help building owners and homeowners reduce energy use, improve health and productivity, increase comfort FAST FACTS The energy that powers homes,schools,and workplaces in Lake Oswego accounts for more than 20 percent of GHG emissions in Lake Oswego(see Appendix B). LED streetlight upgrades have reduced annual electricity costs by approximately$180,000(http://bit.ly/2E79sKJ). The City is aiming to install 1 Megawatt of solar power by 2021. and safety,and support local jobs. Recommendation 3:Avoid energy waste.We recommend: • High performance building standards for new construction. Encourage builders and developers to incorporate sustainable building practices to increase the quality,durability,and performance of new buildings in Lake Oswego. The City update and expand its"High Performance Building Guidelines for City Facilities"to include guidelines for all new commercial and residential development. o Encourage and incentivize(e.g.,with lower permitting fees) commercial and residential developers to follow existing high performance building standards. Examples include LEED(including LEED for Homes), Earth Advantage,or Passive House. o Require energy performance benchmarking(i.e., Energy Usage Index-EUI)to track efficiency of new commercial buildings over [5,000] square feet. The City express its support for efforts to update energy efficiency standards in Oregon's building codes. The City and LOSD target an EUI of 22 or less in all new construction projects. • Energy efficiency upgrades to existing buildings. Help building owners and homeowners save money and increase comfort by taking advantage of state and local programs to help reduce energy use and costs(e.g., PGE time of use). Community Groups engage local building industry to develop and facilitate a series of"home energy fairs" in 2018- 2019 to showcase opportunities for energy savings(e.g.,free energy audits, insulation upgrades,time of use billing). The City develop a policy to provide homebuyers information on home energy performance as part of real estate sales transactions; partner with Oregon Department of Energy and local organizations to offer Home Energy Scores. The City partner with local organizations to facilitate commercial, multifamily,and homeowners opportunities to do both seismic and energy upgrades at the same time. LOSD work with local organizations to complete energy audits and efficiency upgrades at all schools by 2020. Recommendation 4: Make clean energy more accessible.We recommend: • Community Groups work with businesses, LOSD,and neighborhood groups to develop "community solar" installations to help achieve and surpass the City's 1 Megawatt goal by 2020. o Convene solar information sessions in 2018,with outreach and recruiting efforts along Kruse Way. o Partner with Clackamas County to recognize"solar champions"as part of Leaders in Sustainability program. o Support and develop local investment groups interested in local clean energy technology projects. • The City streamline [and waive or reduce fees for] permitting of commercial and residential development and remodeling if the projects include installation of solar PV systems. • LOSD continue to partner with Energy Trust to evaluate solar potential on existing schools and tap into financial incentives from Energy Trust's"Path to Net Zero" program for new school construction. Other ideas to explore: 1. Promote deconstruction as a preferred alternative to demolition of older homes and businesses. 2. Continue to explore attainable housing concepts and identify site parameters conductive to its development (e.g., consider dropping fees for secondary dwelling units and finding opportunities for cottage development zoning). 3. Invite local businesses to pilot new clean energy and/or building technologies with local research universities. Mar 20 2018 3 CONSUMPTION (FOOD AND MATERIALS) Actions to ensure Lake Oswego is maximizing the benefits of good food and durable products. We recommend Lake FAST FACTS Food and consumption accounts for more than 40 percent of Lake Oswego's total GHG emissions(see Appendix B). We consume more food and protein than we need (2,900 calories and 90 grams of protein per day), putting our health at risk.A more balanced diet of 2,500 calories and 50 grams per day,which still includes animal-based food such as beef, could reduce agricultural GHG emissions by more than 40 percent (see Appendix C, page 22). Likewise,there are opportunities to reduce the amount of food produced with organic or regenerative farming methods. Countries and companies around the world have embraced a global ambition to reduce food waste by 50 percent by 2030. Food-related GHG emissions—from farming to deforestation to food waste—are the number one global source of GHG emissions.There are many opportunities to address climate change by addressing how and what we grow and eat. Oswego promote better health and reduce GHG emissions with low-impact food choices and waste management practices. Recommendation 5: Increase sustainable food options.We recommend: A food program to decrease agricultural GHG emissions by 30-50 percent. We recommend: • Community Groups partner with the City, LOSD, local businesses to "nudge" residents toward food choices that are tastier, healthier,and low-impact(e.g.,shifting consumption away from high impact foods such as beef). • The City share recipes and tastings for healthy, low-impact meals via HelloLO and Adult Community Center. • LOSD pilot,with support of parents and Community Groups,several healthier, low-impact school menus. More local organic food options.We recommend: • Community Groups promote the benefits of organic food and its availability through stores, restaurants and local produce stands. • The City continue support for the Farmer's Market and Luscher Farm Community Supported Agriculture(CSA). • The City explore expansion of community gardens beyond Luscher Farm for edible landscaping and gleaning. Recommendation 6:Cut food waste in half. We recommend: • Community Groups pilot test"ugly food"stands or other means of selling produce that is otherwise wasted. • The City work with Clackamas County to provide a "best practices"guide and tools for households,schools, businesses and other institutions to reduce food waste(including food donation and commercial food composting). • LOSD create"Share Tables"or similar programs at each school to ensure food that is otherwise wasted ends up in households that need it. Recommendation 7: Extend useful life of clothing,electronics,building materials. We recommend: • The City explore pilot projects to measure consumption and engage Republic Services or others to create better access to information about how to get usable goods(such as electronics and clothing)to those who need them. • The City explore a "tool library" model at Lake Oswego library or Operations Center for residents to access shared tools or equipment, including electric power tools(rather than purchasing,owning, and disposing individually). • LOSD preserve and reuse construction materials from facilities such as Lakeridge Junior High School by partnering with local organizations that help deconstruct and repurpose buildings. • Community Groups explore opportunities to partner with LOSD and local businesses to create "Fix it Fairs" in 2018. Mar 20 2018 4 RESOURCES AND RESILIENCE Actions to preserve Lake Oswego's air,land,and water resources in a changing climate. We recommend Lake Oswego continue with careful planning and responsible development so commercial districts and residential neighborhoods continue FAST FACTS According to Oregon State University,average temperatures in Oregon could rise by 3°to 7°F by 2050 and 5°F to 11°F by 2080. Lake Oswego has been a "Tree City USA Community"for nearly 30 years, benefiting from trees'aesthetics,shade(lower heat exposure and cooling loads),carbon sequestration, increased property value, noise mitigation, improved air quality and local habitat. to be safe and resilient to new climate extremes. Recommendation 8: Plan for new extremes.We recommend: • The City update disaster management policies and procedures in preparation for more frequent extreme weather events(e.g., heavy rain,floods,fires,droughts). • The City assess where new rules, policies,or programs are needed in advance of extreme weather(e.g., sufficiency of existing heating/cooling centers,necessary updates to scheduling rules for construction and trash pickup). • LOSD,with support from parent organizations and Community Groups, review and update policies for weather extreme preparedness(e.g.,extreme heat policies for outdoor activities, indoor comfort,and air quality). Recommendation 9: Manage water wisely.We recommend: • The City increase promotion of free water audits through partnerships with Chamber of Commerce and LOSD and continue the promotion of highly efficient water fixtures and appliances. • The City continue to explore and promote opportunities to use harvested rain water and grey water for irrigation. • The City update flood zone maps, in particular for Foothills area. • The City implement and assess effectiveness of new stormwater management goals and guidance. • The City explore technologies that can reclaim water and energy waste at wastewater and water treatment facilities. Recommendation 10: Preserve and enhance our forests and natural areas.We recommend: • Community Groups plant 1,000 new trees a year for five years, in partnership with LOSD and local property owners, with an emphasis on native species,drought tolerance,fire protection, habitat restoration and biodiversity. • Community Groups preserve trees and improve open space on private and LOSD properties, including removal of tree ivy,and other invasive plants,to improve fire protection and the health and viability of existing trees. • The City partner with local organizations to buy and plant 500 trees on City-owned property(while taking into consideration watering and maintenance requirements) and invite sponsors to buy,and volunteers to plant,trees on City-owned land,or ODOT-owned land on which the City gains permission to plant the trees,such as along I-5. • The City increase preservation of trees and improvement of open space,through review and update of the Development Code as relates to tree preservation,and enforcing tree preservation requirements on sites that are developed prior to annexing to the City. • The City support a tree program with annual Habitat Enhancement Fund grants and explore potential "tree-bates" on water bills for residents that purchase trees to plant and maintain on their own property. • The City advocate to update fire management processes in Tryon State Park and City-owned parks and natural areas. Other ideas to explore: 1. Preserve air quality with a "Lawn Equipment Electrification" program for residents and lawn care businesses to trade gas-powered equipment for electric equipment(for example,see South Coast AQMD exchange program). 2. Preserve local air quality by enforcing anti-idling rules for delivery trucks and school pickup/dropoff;and promoting electrification of gas powered equipment and generators,such as seasonal events in the parks,food truck alleys,etc. Mar 20 2018 5 IMPLEMENTATION (AND MEASUREMENT) Lake Oswego is committed to preserving and improving the quality of life of residents and the economic opportunities for businesses. To ensure the actions in this summary are implemented in line with that commitment,we recommend: • The City use a "quality of life"dashboard (currently in development)to communicate progress on climate action areas and survey community opinion before/after. • The City identify areas in its 2018 goals where the recommended climate actions can be implemented and adopt annual practice of reviewing progress on climate action. • The City develop a periodic and comprehensive assessment of GHG impacts of City development plans and annual goals, including metrics that highlight Lake Oswego's Carbon Productivity and consumption; hire interns to create open databases for City's solar potential,tree planting,and financial resources available to residents. We recommend that each recommended action have an "owner"to drive implementation in 2018(see Appendix D for more detail). Action Area Recommended Actions,Owners,and Resources 1. Electrify transportation: a. Community Groups: LOSN Transportation Team, LOSN School Team b. City: Public Works, Planning Department, Planning Commission,Sustainability,SAB,Transportation Advisory Board Transportation c. Other organizations and resources: FORTH,State of Oregon (https://www.afdc.energy.gov/laws/11865) and Connectivity 2. Make public transit more convenient a. Community Groups: LOSN Transportation Team, LOSN School Team b. City: Engineering Department c. Other organizations and resources: Chariot, Portland State University,TriMet, Climate Solutions, local employers(Nike, Intel,Yakima) 3. Avoid energy waste a. Community Groups: LOSN Energy Team, LOSN School Team Buildings and b. City:Sustainability,SAB, Planning and Buildings Department c. LOSD: Randy Miller Energy d. Other organizations and resources: PGE/NW Natural, Energy Trust of Oregon, Enhabit, local universities, local building industry 4. Make clean energy more accessible a. Community Groups: LOSN Community Solar Team 5. Increase sustainable food options & 6. Cut food waste in half Consumption a. Community Groups: LOSN Food Team, LOSN School Team (Food and b. Resources:Oakland sustainable food program (http://bit.ly/2CYdwgV)and Share tables(http://bit.ly/2CIWTJd) Materials) 7. Extend useful life of clothing,electronics,building materials a. Other organizations and resources: Curb My Clutter, Rebuilding Center Resources and 8. Plan for new extremes Resilience 9. Manage water wisely a. Community Groups: LOSN Water Team, Lake Oswego Watershed Council b. City:Water Conservation c. Other organizations and resources: CoreLogic and NOAA flood risk maps 10. Preserve and enhance our forests and natural areas a. Community Groups: Lake Oswego Watershed Council, Friends of Trees b. City: Parks Department, Parks, Recreation and Natural Resources Advisory Board, Planning Department, Planning Commission,Water c. Other organizations and resources: Clackamas Soil and Water District Mar 20 2018 6 Appendix A. Overview of approach. In early 2017, the City of Lake Oswego's Sustainability Advisory Board (SAB) established a small coordinating committee—drawing representatives from SAB, Lake Oswego Sustainability Network, and the City—to coordinate and advance recommendations.Together,the team developed a work plan for delivery of recommendations by the end of the year with an aim to: Align with existing City goals, plans and policies, as well as community interests and programs. • Instead of creating a new "plan" or additional programs,the recommendations focus on sensible policy updates or opportunities to incorporate climate actions into existing plans and programs. • Specifically, many of the recommended actions in this draft should be incorporated into an updated "Sustainability and Climate Action Plan" (in coordination with the City's Staff Sustainability Committee). Update the City's policies and infrastructure in a way that can be measured, managed, and adapted over time. • Two questions will define success for each action: (1) Does this help preserve and improve quality of life in Lake Oswego?and (2) Can this be measured in a way that indicates whether the City is just 'doing better' or is 'doing what is necessary'to minimize and adapt to climate change? • Specifically,this draft outlines the interventions,the metrics, and the "owners"to implement each action. The team organized actions to focus on four primary areas for action: (1)transportation and connectivity; (2) buildings and energy; (3)food and material consumption; and (4) natural resources and resilience. Members of SAB and LOSN contributed ideas and analysis by completing assessment worksheets that asked several key questions (see template below).These worksheets informed the final set of recommendations. Climate Action Assessment, Lake Oswego Climate Action Plan Lir Climate Action [Insert Climate Action Title] e ar,medium,long term) 1111 [Timeframe] [Date] Witted by(Name) [Name] Criteria for Assessment: pact: Greenhouse gas emission reduction potential .ty Betil Who benefits, how is this measured? ial Implications: Total cost,who pays?cost/benefit, payback period mpatibility with the Lak Does this action enhance the lives of 10%or more of current Lake Oswego residents? If wego lifestyle: yes, how? Does this action reduce livability for 10%or more Lake Oswego residents? If so, how? mentation Is Who will implement this action? Do they have the willingness, resources and knowledge? r Is there a designated "owner" and a designated "champion"? oposed Timing: Is this near term, medium term,or long term? Mar 20 2018 7 Introduction A short section describing key action(s) proposed, and why they should be included in the plan. Which Focus Area does this action affect? (Buildings/Energy, Transportation, Land Use/Planning, Food/Consumption) Financial Informatio How much will this action cost? Is there a payback? How long is it? What is the cost/benefit analysis? Who will pay? mpact Information What is the impact on greenhouse gas reduction? Show your assumptions, include emissions factors and citations. How does this action help Lake Oswego meet its climate goals? What are the community benefits of this action? ction Describe your proposed action in more detail with specific targets about what will be achieved. Describe how the action meets guiding principles related to consistency with Lake Oswego lifestyle. Include any notes, resources or documentation required for understanding the action. plementatio The time frame of the action—can it be accomplished by the end of 2018? How will this action be implemented? Is there a person who is responsible for implementation, an "owner"willing and available to carry out the action? Is there a person who is passionate about this action, a "champion"? Mar 20 2018 8 Appendix B. Summary results from 2012 study of Lake Oswego's GHG emissions Lake Oswego Greenhouse Gas Emissions (2006) 1.27 Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent{Millions of MT CO2e} 29.9 Metric Tons CO2e per Lake Oswego Resident ntsSkxtu$ f knoductiort, Energy-related emissions and disposal of (Estimated 0.27 million MT CO2e) materials.goods and food it (Estimated 0.59 million MT CO2e Energy , . Natural gas consumption by residents and businesses • Manufacture of products and Manufacture ' " Fossil fuel consumption from food (from inside and outsidelo Materials utilities' Imported electricity the region)consumed by Lake 46°Ifo- Oswego residents and businesses. • Freight movement of materials, • Ili goods and fond Waste management and recycling system{collection, Transpt rtaUbn i landfills) 31`/* L.I Transportation emissions . . (Estimated 0,39 million MT Gt72€t) Local Government(operations) Local - Vehicle miles traveled by passenger vehicles (Estimated 0.02 million MT CO2e) Government IIand light trucks • 1.5% • Operation of public transportation system Public infrastructure projects (TriMet) ■ Owned fleet and employee commute transportation - Freight traffic inside Lake Oswego • Consumption of electricity and natural gas ■ Long-distance travel by Lake Oswego citizens Lake Oswego Cmmunity Greenhouse Gas Lake Oswego Community Greenhouse Gas Lake Oswego Community Greenhouse Gas Emissions with Materials Split Emissions with Transportation Split Emissions with Energy Split Long-Distance Solid Waste Freight._,_ 0.6% ..Building 9-1VAC god and Lighting Fo .._, Use of g� F,4ppllanG9s and Dances M1.lnlrn.alc L4cat 6°0 rrRi':r ,.f�55engBr . Transport 15% 1111 Go�ids_ z Transrt 29°r, <1101% Luca Giovemment. CBthar 1.5% Local Freight Passenger 1411'. Transport Government 2% 14% 1.5% For further detail, see: https://www.ci.oswego.or.us/sites/default/files/fileattachments/sustainability/webpage/13289/att a lakeoswego- commghginv-021612-final.pdf Mar 20 2018 9 Appendix C. Worksheets with additional information and analysis on select recommendations Contents Electric Vehicle Actions--Assumptions &Analysis Worksheet 11 Analysis of the Impact of Increasing the Purchase of EVs in Lake Oswego 14 Electric Vehicle Frequently Asked Questions 16 NYT Editorial on Electric Cars 18 Public Transit Actions--Assumptions&Analysis Worksheet 20 Car-Sharing and Ride-Sharing Actions--Assumptions&Analysis Worksheet 24 Utilitarian Biking Actions--Assumptions &Analysis Worksheet 26 Food Awareness Actions--Assumptions&Analysis Worksheet 27 Organic Food Actions--Assumptions&Analysis Worksheet 30 Food Waste Actions--Assumptions&Analysis Worksheet 33 Tree Planting Actions--Assumptions&Analysis Worksheet 35 Mar 20 2018 10 Electric Vehicle Actions -- Assumptions & Analysis Worksheet Climate Action Assessment, Lake Oswego Climate Action Plan Increase number of new electric vehicle purchases Proposed Climate Action in LO to 50%by 2030 Timeframe Long term with short and medium actions (near,medium,long term) Date Al October 2, 2017 SuiaiiiiiiiM Lisa Adatto, Duke Castle & Rob Heape 6_ Criteria for Assessment: Climate Impact: Can reduce GHG from 189 Mtons currently to 75 Mtons by 2040,a 60%reduction Community Benefits: III Whole community enjoys cleaner air Financial Implications: Primary cost is borne by resident when they purchase a new car.City might decide to ilunderwrite EV charging stations. Compatibility with the Lake Very little change in current auto lifestyle unless autonomous driving becomes prevalent. Oswego lifestyle: Implementation Issu Education is required to demonstrate benefits and differences of electric vehicles over gas cars.There will also be a need to expand the EV charging network in LO. Proposed Timing: - Near and medium term Introduction 15% of all Lake Oswego GHG emissions and 50%of all transportation GHG emissions are due to operating internal combustion vehicles. Motivating citizens to switch to electric vehicles will have the greatest impact in reducing GHG transportation emissions and one of the most impactful actions of all those being considered for the Lake Oswego climate action plan. Two of the biggest barriers to the acceptance of electric cars, price and driving range, are changing dramatically. This has caused a number of countries to ban the sale of internal combustion vehicles starting in 2025 and has caused several prognosticators to forecast that the sale of electric vehicles will dominate the auto market within 10 years or so. With its well-educated population, auto-oriented culture and above average incomes, Lake Oswego's citizens could be on the forefront of that transition. Actions that would support that include community education on the benefits and differences in electric vehicles and a greater proliferation of charging stations and options particularly for multifamily residences. Which Focus Area does this action affect? Transportation Mar 20 2018 11 Financial Information How much will this action cost? Educational activities could include periodic public EV fairs and resource information on the city's website.These costs would primarily be staff time. There are EV charging network organizations such as Chargepoint and Tesla that could be incentivized to expand charging options in Lake Oswego.The cost of to the city to do so depends on how much the city wants to underwrite such an effort. More research would be needed to determine what the city would like to do. Is there a payback? How long is it? Electric vehicles are a lot less complex and cost less to maintain and operate than internal combustion vehicles making them cost competitive now to purchase and operate. Continued declining battery costs are projected to make EV purchase prices alone cost competitive with internal combustion vehicles by 2025. What is the cost/benefit analysis? In addition to a significant decrease in GHG emissions,there would also be a significant decrease in toxic emissions and increase in cleaner air. A study by MIT estimates that there are 58,000 deaths annually in the U.S. due to toxic vehicle emissions vs. 35,000 due to accidents. Additionally many EVs like Tesla and the GM Volt have Level 2 Partial Autonomy which can significantly reduce rear end collisions. Initial results of Level 4 fully autonomous driving indicates that EVs at that level could reduce accident rates by 10-40% Lastly over time as enough electric cars are hooked to the grid they can be used by PGE to smooth out load demand through vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capability where the car batteries are used as a source of electricity. The same V2G capability can be used in emergencies for short term electric backup. Who will pay? The city would have some investment in staff time and possible financial outlay to underwrite expanding the EV charging network. The major costs though would be paid by the residents when they purchase a new car and residential charging equipment, and by the charging networks that decide to add public charging stations in the community. Impact Information What is the impact on greenhouse gas reduction? Show your assumptions, include emissions factors and citations. The GHG reductions of converting to electric cars are significant, with a possible GHG reduction of 60% in the next 25 years. See Appendix A for the assumptions and analysis. How does this action help Lake Oswego meet its climate goals? Actions. To meet the goal of significantly increasing the usage of electric vehicles in Lake Oswego our recommended actions focus on two areas: actions that support the purchase and usage of EVs and actions that support the increase and availability of EV charging stations. Mar 20 2018 12 Strategy:Actions that support purchase and usage of electric vehicles 1. Develop and execute a campaign to provide decision makers and the public opportunities to drive an EV and experience its benefits. 2. Develop and provide information about electric and hybrid vehicles and incentive programs on the City website. 3. Take advantage of the$2500 rebate for new EV purchases under the new state transportation program. For some there is also an additional $2500 rebate if the EV replaces a 20 year old car. 4. City purchase or contract for 50% electric vehicles 5. Encourage the Lake Oswego School District to contract for electric school busses Strategy:Actions to support increased EV charging stations 6. Adopt building codes that promote EV charging infrastructure -- look at building in conduits as new streets and buildings are constructed 7. Take advantage of potential opportunities under the new state clean fuels program. 8. Advocate (as a city) at the state and regional level for better charging station infrastructure like standardized plug- ins, signage, standardized payment methodology, roadways and mapping strategy 9. Promote workplace charging 10. Increase charging infrastructure in Lake Oswego - Multi family pilot - HOA pilot - Along city streets - Electric Avenue Implementation The time frame of the action—can it be accomplished by the end of 2018 Activity on Actions#1-3 could take place in 2018. Actions#4& 5 depend on when vehicle contracts for the city and school district will be renewed.Actions#7 &8 require more research. All of the charging station actions (#6 to 10) require research on the cost to implement,the interest in private charging networks to participate and research on what other policies other cities have implemented to promote more charging station availability. How will these actions be implemented? Much of the planning and research can be done by SAB,TAB, LOSN and the city sustainability coordinator. At some point the city maintenance, operations and planning departments would be involved. Mar 20 2018 13 Analysis of the Impact of Increasing the Purchase of EVs in Lake Oswego Assumptions Lake Oswego-June 2016 Total number of cars in Lake Oswego- 39,645 Total number of electric vehicles in Lake Oswego-515 Source: PSU- Transportation Research and Education Center New car sales calculation 2016 total number of cars in U.S. -253 million 2016 new car sales in U.S. - 17.6 million Percentage of new cars purchased -7.0% Source: IHS Automotive Annual new car sales growth -2% Source: National Automotive Dealers Association Greenhouse Gas Impact Avg number of miles driven per year per vehicle - 13,474- Source: U.S. Dept. of Transportation Avg Miles per Gallon (2015)-24.8 - Source:EPA Total gallons purchased per year per vehicle-543 gallons CO2 emissions per gallon -8.81 kilograms/gallon - Source: World Resources Institute CO2 emissions per vehicle per year-4.8 metric tons U.S. Electric Vehicle Sales Forecast-2.5°A) in 2018 growing to 60% by 2040 Source: Bloomberg New Energy Finance Projected Number of LO Electric Vehicles Annual Cumulative Percent decrease in decrease in decrease LO New % Total GHG emissions GHG in auto Year Car Sales % EVs New EV Total EV Cars metric tons emissions GHG 2018 2813 2.5% 70 585 1.5% 337 190 0.1% 2019 2869 3.0°A) 86 671 1.7°A) 412 422 0.2°Ao 2020 2927 3.5% 102 774 2.0% 490 799 0.4% 2021 2985 5.2°A) 155 929 2.3% 743 1,372 0.7% 2022 3045 6.9% 210 1139 2.9% 1,006 2,146 1.1% 2023 3106 8.6°A) 267 1406 3.5% 1,279 3,131 1.6% 2024 3168 10% 326 1733 4.4% 1,562 4,334 2.3°A) 2025 3231 12% 388 2120 5.3% 1,856 5,763 3.0% 2026 3296 18% 580 2700 6.8% 2,777 7,902 4.2% 2027 3362 23% 780 3480 8.8% 3,733 10,777 5.7% 2028 3429 29% 988 4468 11% 4,727 14,417 7.6°Ao 2029 3498 34% 1203 5671 14% 5,759 18,853 10°A) 2030 3568 40% 1427 7098 18% 6,831 24,428 13% 2031 3639 43% 1565 8663 22% 7,490 30,540 16% 2032 3712 46% 1707 10370 26% 8,173 37,210 20°A) 2033 3786 49% 1855 12226 31% 8,880 44,457 23% 2034 3862 52% 2008 14234 36% 9,612 52,302 28% 2035 3939 55% 2166 16400 41% 10,370 60,765 32% 2036 4018 56% 2250 18650 47% 10,769 69,554 37% 2037 4098 57% 2336 20986 53% 11,181 78,680 41% 2038 4180 58% 2424 23410 59% 11,605 88,150 46% 2039 4264 59% 2516 25926 65% 12,041 97,977 52% 2040 4349 60% 2609 28535 72% 12,490 108,745 57% Mar 20 2018 14 Lake Oswego Electric Vehicle Growth 80.o% - 7o.o% - 60.0% - . 50.0% - 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% - 10.0% - •• ■ ■ • 0.0% J I ■ 1 ■ I I I I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I 1 I 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 2028 2030 2032 2034 2036 2038 2040 Year New EV sales Total EV Stock GHG Reductions Mar 20 2018 15 Electric Vehicle Frequently Asked Questions Overview Electric vehicles right now are a niche market,just about 1%of total U.S. new car sales in 2016. Yet some analysts are predicting that electric vehicle sales could reach 40%of U.S. new car sales by 2030 and close to 60% by 2040. What is causing such optimistic projections? There are many factors in play. Some of them are: • new, lower cost models due to rapidly decreases in battery costs • automobile fuel efficiency regulations in the U.S. and globally that ultimately are best met through electrification • continuing decline in the cost of batteries that will make EVs cost competitive with fossil fuel driven vehicles in some parts of the world within two years and in the U.S. within seven years. • a growing number of countries that have set deadlines outlawing the sale of internal combustion engine autos starting as soon as 2025 They are too expensive! If one looks at just the Tesla Model S and Model X,they indeed are expensive starting at around $60,000 and fully loaded reaching$120,000. However things are rapidly changing. General Motors introduced the Chevy Bolt for$37,000 in 2016 and Tesla just started shipping their Model 3 with a base price of$35,000. Both qualify for a $7500 federal tax credit and in 2018 will qualify for a $2500 Oregon state rebate. Both cars will travel over 200 miles on a single charge. In certain cases there is also an additional $2500 from the state if the EV is replacing a 20+year old car. However there are other models available such as the Nissan Leaf with a 100+ mile range that is selling for under $30,000.The Ford C-MAX Enegi plug-in hybrid with 20 mile battery range and 550 miles total sells for around $25,000 And, the number of new models being offered is rapidly increasing. All car companies are developing EVs with Volvo stating that they will have electric versions of all of their vehicles after 2019. Bloomberg New Energy Finance group estimates that there will be over 200 different electric vehicle models by 2020. With the continued decline of battery costs Bloomberg projects that the selling price of EVs will reach parity in the U.S. with fossil fuel autos by 2024. They take too long to charge "Refueling" electric vehicles requires seeing the differences between refueling with fossil fuel and with electricity. With fossil fuel you fill up your tank when it gets low. Some days you may have full tank. Other days it maybe low. Most people with electric vehicles will charge there car at home meaning that virtually everyday they will leave with a "full tank".The only times they need to be concerned about charging is when they are driving beyond the range of their batteries.At this point they will want to plan to charge with a high voltage or super charger.Tesla has installed over 6000 super charging stations that will charge to about 80%of capacity in 20-30 minutes.A number of these are strategically placed at restaurants and other places where you can grab a bite to eat while you vehicle is being recharged. There aren't enough charging stations around The number of charging stations is continually growing.Tesla plans to triple the number of super chargers to 18,000 by the end of 2018.There are networks like Chargepoint that has just under 40,000 charging outlets available for public use. In addition apps such as Plugshare that shows a driver information on virtually all the public and private charging outlets available for use. Mar 20 2018 16 The number of charging stations will grow with time. However this is one of issues where a city like Lake Oswego can make a difference by encouraging the installation of chargers in businesses, public garages, multifamily housing and places accessible to those who might not have access to a home charger.Additionally the city could be in a position to negotiate and possibly subsidize charging fees with charging networks. Since so much electricity is generated by coal, isn't pollution worse with EVs? Actually, no, as utilities move toward more renewable sources of electricity generation.According to PGE 40%of their electricity currently comes from renewable sources and that will grow to at least 70% by 2040.This is not just happening in Oregon but through out the U.S. as the cost of renewable energy has become cheaper than fossil fuel causing utilities to move away from coal and eventually from natural gas. Won't all of these batteries just end up in a landfill? Electric car batteries can be recycled and one of the biggest uses is to repurpose them for other applications such as solar energy storage and data center backup.After that the materials such as lithium and cobalt can be extracted and reused.Auto manufacturers such as Nissan are setting up recycling programs and others options are emerging.So continuing to drive a fossil fuel- based car would not seem to be a good option while one waits for battery recycling to get better. Won't EVs put a strain on utilities to produce enough electricity? As more energy efficiency practices are put into effect,the per capita demand for electricity has decreased. Utilities see electric vehicles reversing that. Even so Bloomberg New Energy Finance group estimates that by 2040 when new electric vehicle sales may approach 60%, EVs will only require 5%of the total utility capacity. Isn't the environment better off if I just keep driving my old car? Not according to a study done by the Union of Concerned Scientists.Their analysis shows that in a life cycle analysis the manufacturing of a fossil fueled automobile is only responsible for 8-12%of its total GHG emissions.The rest comes from burning fossil fuel to operate the vehicle. Why not wait until these cars get cheaper and better? The biggest cost of building an electric vehicle is the batteries. Electric vehicle battery costs have declined 80% in the last six years and are continuing to decline. So EV prices will go down over time. For those who are concerned about declining costs, one approach is to leave their EV and get a newer model later. However electric cars are more than just fossil fuel-free vehicles. They are like a computer-on-wheels that can be improved and upgraded with software downloads.Tesla is constantly adding features at no additional cost with software downloads to owner's cars at night. So unlike internal combustion cars, EVs have the ability to get better over time. What other benefits are there? A significant additional benefit is cleaner air. A study by MIT calculated that increased air pollution from vehicles that burn fossil fuel contributes to 58,000 premature deaths annually in the U.S.This compares to 35,000 deaths caused by automobiles. And, autonomously driven electric vehicles hold the promise of significantly reducing the number of automobile accidents and deaths. Data from Google's Self Driving Program suggests that fully autonomous cars are 10 times safer compared to the safest demographic of human driven vehicles (60-69 year olds) and 40 times safer than new drivers. In the meantime Level 2 semiautonomous software is available on Teslas and some General Motors cars that should significantly reduce rear end collisions. Mar 20 2018 17 Public Transit Actions -- Assumptions & Analysis Worksheet Climate Action Assessment, Lake Oswego Climate Action Plan Proposed Climate Triple public transit ridership in ten years or less Action Timeframe Medium (with some short term and long term aspects) (near,medium,long term) Date June 24, 2017 Submitted by(Name) Bob Sack Criteria for Assessment: Climate Impact: GHG emission reduced by 17,105 tons over ten years Community Benefits: In addition to reduced GHG emissions,reduced traffic congestion. Financial Implications: Increasing public transit ridership is overall financially neutral. Compatibility with the Doubling bus ridership will require converting about 900 current single-vehicle Lake Oswego lifestyle: commuters into daily TriMet bus commuters. Implementation Issues: A number of actions are recommended aimed at increasing the attractiveness and convenience of public transit for current non-riders to incentivize them to leave their cars behind and become regular bus commuters. Proposed Timing: Near and medium term Introduction A census survey done in 2012 found that 38 percent of employed Lake Oswego residents (approximately 8,600 people) commute to Portland for their work (Metro News, Sept. 6, 2012). Currently, only about 300 -400 commute by bus. Buses operate regularly even though average occupancy is about 25%. Thus, converting single vehicle commuters to public transit riders is an effective and pragmatic measure for reducing carbon emissions and is a logical feature for the climate action plan. It will take a number of actions to incentivize people to leave their cars behind and to ride the bus (or in the future, light rail). In the accompanying document, we list 12 measures that would make public transit a more attractive alternative for Lake Oswego residents. l l 1 1 ll • 1 1 How much will this action cost? Increasing public transit ridership is overall financially neutral. Bus riders pay fares but save on parking, fuel, and vehicle maintenance. Employers currently pay a TriMet tax and would like to see that money put to good use. The City of L.O. could invest some funds to make public transit more attractive. Some future projects may involve tax increases to support public transportation. The payback in reduced traffic congestion is immediate The carbon offset benefits of increased bus ridership would be immediate. What is the cost/benefit analysis? Promoting public transit ridership is an effective and pragmatic measure for reducing carbon emissions and is a logical feature for the climate action plan. Who will pay? The city of Lake Oswego will need to fund some of the transit amenities described in the appendix,but public transit is primarily a function of TriMet that is funded from a variety of tax revenues. Mar 20 2018 20 Impact Information What is the impact on greenhouse gas reduction? CO2 emissions Total Number Travel passenger pounds per Distance miles per passenger pounds pounds per year tons per year day mile* per day (300 days) Current solo car commuters 90 24 2160 0.96 2073.6 622080 311.04 converted to riding bus *Data from: Public Transportation's Role in Responding to Climate Change www.transit.dot.gov/sites/fta.dot.gov/files/docs/. Year Riders Tons per year Cumulative (tons) 1 90 311 311 2 180 622 933 3 270 933 1866 4 360 1244 3110 5 450 1555 4665 6 540 1866 6531 7 630 2177 8708 8 720 2488 11196 9 810 2799 13995 10 900 3110 17105 How does this action help Lake Oswego meet its climate goals? Transportation accounts for 31%of Lake Oswego's GHG emissions,almost all from automobiles. Thus, promoting public transit ridership is an effective and pragmatic measure for reducing carbon emissions and is a logical feature for the climate action plan. What are the community benefits of this action? In addition to reducing GHG emissions,a vibrant public transit system provides alternatives for people who cannot drive (youth,elderly,disabled). It reduces the need for parking. It is safer.Traffic congestion is decreased. Actions Describe your proposed action in more detail with specific targets about what will be achieved. The following actions are aimed at increasing the attractiveness and convenience of public transit in order to Mar 20 2018 21 recruit non-riders to leave their cars behind and become regular bus commuters. These measures will also improve the experience for current regular bus riders. 1. Collaborate with TriMet to construct a new bus shelter at the Lake Oswego Transit Center on 4th Street. This will be part of the 4th Street remodel, currently in the planning stages. 2. Petition TriMet to increase the frequency of service on the primary Lake Oswego commuter bus (#35)to a minimum of 15-minute headways during the weekdays. This is a stated goal for TriMet, so the only question becomes when and how to accomplish this goal. 3. Have the City of L.O. provide bus passes for any city employees who desire to use TriMet's Employer Program. Encourage businesses in L.O to do the same. 4. Create a bike garage in the parking structure of the new city hall. This will provide a secure place for bus riders to park a bicycle before boarding the bus. Riding a bicycle from home to the transit station can reduce the "first and last mile problem"that inhibits public transit use. 5. A Park-and-Ride facility near the transit center would be an ideal amenity, but previous studies by the city have determined that it would be an unwarranted use of precious downtown property. However, if bus service frequency were increased on Country Club Road, the congregation at the Riverwest Church (across from Lake Oswego High School) might allow their large parking lot to be used as a Park-and-Ride. 6. Work with the L.O. Senior Center to provide education and assistance for senior citizens who would like to ride the bus. Make sure that seniors avail themselves of TriMet's special transport services. 7. Review the current bus route structure with TriMet officials and a committee of current bus riders to determine if efficiency and accessibility could be improved. For example, we might propose that#35 begin and end at the Tualatin Transit Center, rather than Oregon City Transit Center. This would provide a regular link between the east and west sides of the city, and link the primary commuter bus with a Park-and-Ride facility at the Riverwest Church (see above). 8. Bus#96 is essentially an express service line from Tigard Park and Ride to Portland. A more frequent feeder service on the west side of L.O. with a stop on Kruse Way would make this bus a convenient way for residents of Lake Grove to commute to Portland. Long term 1. The Southwest Corridor Light Rail project (if built)will provide an exciting new public transit alternative for L.O., especially for people living on the west side. Proposed stations at Bonita Road, Upper Boones Ferry Road, and Bridgeport Village will be close by. After the light rail is operating, the bus system in L.O. will undoubtedly be reorganized to provide "feeders"to the Max stations. Businesses in the Kruse Way complex may provide private shuttles to the Max stations during rush hours. Amanda Owings, Traffic Engineering Technician for the city currently represents Lake Oswego on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement(DEIS) committee. 2. All-electric buses are becoming a reality and TriMet should be encouraged to take the lead to convert to this technology. The city may want to offer a re-charging station site near the transit center. All-electric school buses are also becoming to be available and the L.O. school district should consider this option for their next generation of school buses. 3. Low ridership buses drag down the average CO2 emissions for the transit system. Very different alternative transit services may someday need to replace the low-ridership service on Bus Lines#36 and #37. For example, a flexible route that could deviate from a fixed route would provide more convenient service and possibly increase ridership in less dense neighborhoods. Such a service has been operating in Salem for several years; however, it is scheduled to revert to regularly scheduled service in the near future. This kind of local demand-responsive circulator service was proposed in the 1997 Lake Oswego Transportation System Plan. Alternatively, it is possible that collaboration with a ride service such as Lyft would attract more riders that the current 36 and 37 bus service. Eventually autonomous vehicles may be available for these low-density routes. 4. A proposal to build a streetcar on the current excursion trolley line was rejected in 2012. However, substantial support remains for this concept. Mar 20 2018 22 Describe how the action meets the guiding principles related to consistency with the Lake Oswego lifestyle. As an affluent suburban town, Lake Oswego is currently oriented to the automobile for most transportation. Nevertheless,the significant proportion commuters who work in Portland constitute a large potential market for public transit if it could be made more attractive. Implementation The time frame of the action-some proposals can it be accomplished by the end of 2018 Action item 1 is already in progress and will be monitored by the SAB. Quite a number of the action items above can be accomplished by the end of 2018; namely, 2, 3, 4 and 6. The rest will need to more time. A 100% increase in ridership by 2027 is ambitious but may be achievable given the large "market"of current single vehicle commuters; thus this goal will need to be re-evaluated every three years. How will this action be implemented? City Council action is required for items 1,2,3 and 4. The city has a representative on the DEIS committee for the Southwest Corridor Project (item 9); at some point, a citizen committee should be appointed to provide input regarding Lake Oswego interests in this project. The Lake Oswego Sustainability Network may be able to provide significant citizen involvement to gather public support for these items. Is there a person who is responsible for implementation,an"owner"who is willing and available to carry out the action? There is presently an opportunity for a passionate advocate for public transportation to become a champion. In fact, a public campaign to raise awareness of the action items listed above, and to bring excitement to public transit will be necessary to overcome the bias against public transit. Is there a person who is passionate about this action,a"champion"? So far,the interest in public transit in Lake Oswego is modest. The mounting traffic congestion may stimulate more interest in finding solutions. Mar 20 2018 23 Car-Sharing and Ride-Sharing Actions -- Assumptions &Analysis Worksheet Climate Action Assessment, Lake Oswego Climate Action Plan Proposed Climate Action Increase Car-Sharing and Ride-Sharing to L.O. Timeframe Medium (near,medium,long term) Date Aug 16, 2017 Submitted by(Name) I Bob Sack Criteria for Assessment: Climate Impact: I Modest but significant Community Benefits: Alleviates parking and traffic congestion. Provides transportation option for people who cannot or don't want to drive. Financial Implications: Both car-sharing and ride-sharing reduce household transportation costs by iiieliminating the need to purchase and insure a car. Compatibility with the Enhance transportation options for all residents. Lake Oswego lifestyle: Implementation Iss Ride-sharing thru Lyft and Uber is already available, but ridership could be increased with marketing and incentives. Private car-sharing companies such as Car2Go, ZipCar and ReachNow may need some specific incentives to locate in L.O. Car- pooling can be arranged thru on-line resources, and sometimes thru an employer. Proposed Timing: . Medium Introduction A short section describing key action(s) that are being proposed, and why they should be included in the plan. Both ride-sharing and car-sharing are reported to increase walking, biking, and use of public transportation. Therefore they augment the goals of the CAP Which Focus Area does this action affect? (Buildings& Energy, Transportation, Land Use& Planning, or Food& Consumption) Transportation Finan - ,,. g,.•,il"Cl'l.atl.•1 lirT How much will this action cost? There is minimal cost for the city as ride-sharing and car-sharing companies are privately owned and operated. If the city were to sponsor a car-sharing program such as ZipCar,the vehicles could be used by the city and could actually save the city money for purchase of vehicles. The city would bear some costs by providing for dedicated parking for car-sharing vehicles. Is there a payback? How long is it? The financial benefits/liabilaties would are immediate. Mar 20 2018 24 Financial Information What is the cost/benefit analysis? The costs and benefits are mostly born by the users. Who will pay? The costs and benefits are mostly born by the users. Impact Information What is the impact on greenhouse gas reduction? Show your assumptions, include emissions factors and citations. Needs further study How does this action help Lake Oswego meet its climate goals? Needs further study What are the community benefits of this action? Needs further study Describe your proposed action in more detail with specific targets about what will be achieved. Provide Preferential Parking for car-pooling and car-sharing in city lots, work places, and educational facilities. Provide designated parking slots for Car2Go, ZipCar, and ReachNow vehicles. ReachNow rents electric vehicles, providing users with an EV driving experience. The city could sponsor ZipCar vehicles that could be used for city business and would reduce the need for city- owned cars, The City could actively promote a "one car" philosophy ("your backup/second vehicle can be car-sharing, ride- sharing, public transit, bicycle, etc.") by educating the public on the personal (and environmental) costs of owning multiple vehicles. An ambitious use of ride-sharing would involve subsidizing Uber and/or Lyft to provide "first and last mile" rides to public transit hubs; a policy that has been implemented in some other cities. This could be a collaboration with TriMet. Learning to use car-sharing and ride-sharing requires some practice. The city could provide information and coaching services thru the Adult Community Center. Describe how the action meets the guiding principles related to consistency with the Lake Oswego lifestyle. As a suburban city, L.O. is heavily dependent on transportation. Ride-sharing and car-sharing provide options that reduced the need for parking as well as owning a second car(or even a first car). Implementation The time frame of the action—can it be accomplished by the end of 2018 Needs further study How will this action be implemented? Needs further study Is there a person who is responsible for implementation, an "owner" who is willing and available to carry out the action? The new Windward Development(Wizer Block) would be an excellent place to locate a car-sharing vehicle. Is there a person who is passionate about this action, a "champion"? Needs further study Mar 20 2018 25 Utilitarian Biking Actions -- Assumptions & Analysis Worksheet Climate Action Assessment, Lake Oswego Climate Action Plan Proposed Climate Action Increase utilitarian biking Timeframe Medium (near,medium,long term) Date July 1, 2017 Submitted by(Name) Bob Sack Criteria for Assessment: Climate Impact: A Moderate Community Benefits: Decrease auto traffic, health benefits from biking 91 Financial Implication Bike infrastructure expense born by the city Introduction A short section describing key action(s) that are being proposed, and why they should be included in the plan. Currently bicycling is popular in Lake Oswego,but most of it is recreational. If bicycling is going to have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions, a larger proportion will need to be "utilitarian;" that is,riding a bicycle as alternative to driving a car for local transportation. Utilitarian bicycling includes commuting to work or school, as well as biking for shopping and errands such as visiting the library. Although recreational biking has little impact on GHG emissions,it needs to be supported because people who ride for fun are more likely to bike for utilitarian purposes as well. In any case,both recreational and utilitarian bicycling have a similar critical requirement; namely, a network of safe bike routes. Which Focus Area does this action affect? Transportation Actions Describe your proposed action in more detail with specific targets about what will be achieved. Because the city is responsible for streets,roads, and sidewalks, it has a crucial role in promoting bicycle infrastructure. Therefore the climate action plan should state that bicycling should be prioritized in the next and future Transportation System Plans. This could include building bike paths, limiting car traffic on some streets in favor of bikes, and providing safe lanes on city streets. Also it will be important to link bicycling to the public transit system is much as possible(see below). In the longer term, it will be very important for Lake Oswego to advocate for a safe bike path to Portland, paralleling Highway 43. Electric bikes (e-bikes) are becoming very popular in many parts of the world, especially for utilitarian biking (they can"flatten" the hilly terrain of L.O.)The city could install a bike-share program utilizing e-bikes as a way of encouraging e-bike use. Mar 20 2018 26 Food Awareness Actions -- Assumptions & Analysis Worksheet Climateon Assessment take C ego 'mate Action P an Food awareness program to decrease agricultural GHG emissions Proposed Climate Action by 30-50% through food choices. Timeframe 1 Near to long term (near,medium,long term) AM Date August 2017 Submitted by(Name) IIIII Duke Castle, Dave Hawley Criteria for Assessment: Climate Impact: GHG emissions could be reduced by almost 50%if over consumption of food was reduced from 2900 cal/day to 2500 cal/day and protein consumption by animals was cut by half Community Benefits: Improves health by reducing weight and decreasing risk of cancer& heart disease. 111111 Financial Implications: Impacts cattle ranching,one of Oregon's leading ag industries.Also impacts farming in 4 general,with more consumption of high value produce and less of grains used for animal feed. Health benefits should be lead to major health cost reductions Compatibility with the Lakei Should be fully consistent with community individuals desire to be healthy through making Oswego lifestyle: sound food choices. Implementation Issu Requires broad community education effort organized by a citizen committee and/or SAB and a LOSN Action Team Proposed Timing: Near term to long term Mar 20 2018 27 Introduction According to Drawdown food-related GHG emissions—from farming to deforestation to food waste—are the number one source of greenhouse gas emissions.The raising of livestock requires 80%of U.S. agricultural land, 70% of our grain and 50%of our water, and is responsible for 18—20%of greenhouse gases annually, second only to fossil fuel. WRI calculates that over 80%of those emissions in the U.S. are due to the raising of animal- based food sources and that 50%of the animal-based emissions are caused by the production of beef. Land and water use by crops used for animal feed drives habitat loss throughout the world as forest and grasslands are converted to crop land. Major carbon emissions to the atmosphere accompany this conversion. In addition,the typically monocrop farming methods lead to overuse of fertilizers with the result in massive toxic runoff polluting ground water and oceanic deadzones. There is a 5-10:1 caloric efficiency loss in converting grain to meat over directly eating the plants. We can easily feed the world on a plant based diet when meat is considered a condiment, not a primary food source. At the same time Americans are consuming far more food and protein than they need —2900 calories and 90 grams of protein per day versus desired levels of 2500 calories and 50 grams per day—putting their health at risk. According to WRI a more balanced diet of 2500 calories and 50 grams per day that still includes some animal- based food such as beef, could reduce agricultural GHG emissions by more than 40% (see: http://www.wri.org/sites/default/files/Shifting_Diets fora Sustainable Food Future 0.pdf) As an additional benefit,the Rodale Institute in a 30 year study have found that organic farming methods can match conventionally grown yields, suppress weeds without the need for GMOs seeds or pesticides,survive droughts better and sequester carbon in the soil. Their report "Regenerative Organic Agriculture and Climate Change"states that a very significant amount of current annual CO2 emissions could be sequestered through wide spread us of organic farming methods. Which Focus Area does this action affect? Food& Consumption Financial Information How much will this action cost? The action is primarily one of education and its dissemination. It is imagined that the education research could be done by citizen groups such as SAB and LOSN.The dissemination of it could be through city sources such as Hello LO,the Farmer's Market, library and adult community center along with other sources such as the LO Review, schools, LOSN newsletter, etc. With these activities in mind the cost to the city should be minimal. Is there a payback? How long is it? The reduction in GHG emissions from such an educational and marketing effort could be immediate and one of the few actions that citizens can take that has a direct immediate impact. What is the cost/benefit analysis? In addition to GHG reductions there are significant health benefits along with less expenditure on some of the most expensive food sources such as beef. Who will pay? The city would have some cost of staff time and out-of-pocket costs for publishing and disseminating printed material. It is probably useful to realize that one source of resistance to this activity will be the Oregon cattle industry. Cattle, dairy and hay to feed animals are three of the highest grossing agricultural commodities in Oregon. Mar 20 2018 28 Impact Informatio What is the impact on greenhouse gas reduction? Show your assumptions, include emissions factors and citations. According to WRI, a more balanced and less consumptive daily diet of 2500 calories and 50 grams of protein per person could reduce GHG emissions by more than 40%. How does this action help Lake Oswego meet its climate goals? According to the Good Company study of 2006 greenhouse gas emissions in Lake Oswego, food was one of the highest sources. Reducing that impact is one of the most immediate and effective thing Lake Oswego citizens can do. What are the community benefits of this action? Reducing caloric intake and particularly animal-based has significant health benefits such as reduced obesity and risk from heart attacks. ctions 1. Develop an educational program on the impact food choices for both humans and pets have on the environment and health, particularly moving toward more organic farming practices and reducing consumption of beef and other meat choices. 2. Publicize through city website, Hello LO, library, adult community center and Lake Oswego Review 3. Work with schools, local restaurants and senior care facilities such as Mary's Woods on ways to support and market this educational effort •lementation The time frame of the action—can it be accomplished by the end of 2018 The research, development and implementation of an educational and marketing program could be created by SAB, LOSN and other interested citizens could be accomplished by the end of 2018. How will this action be implemented? It could be implemented by a combination of work by SAB and LOSN. Mar 20 2018 29 Organic Food Actions -- Assumptions & Analysis Worksheet 1Llimate Action Assessment, Lake Oswego Climate Action Plan ioposed Climate Action Increase local organic food options reme near to long term ar,medium,long term) Ilk August 2017 rmitted by(Name) Heidi Schrimsher Iriteria for Assessment: irlimate Impact: II Reduction of greenhouse gas emission 5-10% Community Benefits:III The biggest benefits of locally grown food are social—pro viding an educational experience for the community whose members can participate directly in vegetable production,composting and rainwater harvesting. Lake Oswego residents value healthy lifestyles. Fresh locally grown food is highly valued in Lake Oswego. Financial Implications: For residence,growing food can save significant money. Neighborhood Community Gardens can be financially self sustaining.One expense that will need to be factored in is water.At Luscher well water is free, but in neighborhoods,city water will have to be utilized. Compatibility with the Lake Oswe Lake Oswego residents value our farmers market and access to fresh local food. lifestyle: Community gardens are valued by a growing segment of our population. Implementation Issues: The City needs to identify suitable locations for community gardens.There is limited park space available, so partnering with schools, businesses,senior care facilities and churches would offer increased opportunities. Portland has 51 community gardens(and a goal to offer a community garden within 1 mile radius of every resident)and is an excellent resource. I osed Timing: ilIM near and medium term Introduction Ongoing City support is needed to promote local organic food options such as farmers markets, CSAs, produce stands and community gardens located throughout the city. In addition to public parks, schools, local businesses, senior care facilities and churches should be considered for locations to build community gardens. During WWII, 40%of food in the US was grown in Victory Gardens.Today it is important to foster resilient in our community. In addition to the huge social benefits of community gardens,growing food in neighborhoods increases community resiliency in the event of a natural disaster. Having community gardens brings communities together, so if we do have a natural disaster, not only do gardens provide life sustaining food, but the connections neighbors make while tending their gardens fosters greater community connections. Mar 20 2018 30 Introduction Which Focus Area does this action affect? Food& Consumption Financial Information How much will this action cost? The existing farmers market and the CSA are already established. Installing community gardens around the City have upfront costs, but once established, can be maintained though the cost of membership. Is there a payback? How long is it? Once gardens are created in neighborhoods,the social payback is immediate. What is the cost/benefit analysis? The cost of providing access to local organic food is minimal when compared to the health benefits offered to the community Who will pay? City government, community garden users Impact Information What is the impact on greenhouse gas reduction? Show your assumptions, include emissions factors and citations. Buying local food could reduce the average consumer's greenhouse gas emissions by 4-5 percent. (Weber, Christopher L. and H. Scott Matthews, "Food-Miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States" Environ. Sci.Technol. (2008): 3508-3513) How does this action help Lake Oswego meet its climate goals? According to the Good Company study of 2006 greenhouse gas emissions in Lake Oswego, food was one of the highest sources. Reducing that impact is one of the most immediate and effective thing Lake Oswego citizens can do. What are the community benefits of this action? Having greater access to locally sourced organic food can help making wiser food choices easier for residents. Gardening also reduces stress, decreases your risk of heart disease and diabetes, keeps your mind sharp and helps you sleep better. Mar 20 2018 31 Actions Describe your proposed action in more detail with specific targets about what will be achieved. Community gardens have been proposed in the Parks Plan 2025, however implementation has not occurred. Priority needs to be established and additional sites need to be identified. Usable park space is limited, so it is necessary to partner with businesses, schools, senior care facilities and churches. Implementation How will this action be implemented? It could be implemented by a combination of work by SAB, Parks Board and LOSN. Mar 20 2018 32 Food Waste Actions -- Assumptions & Analysis Worksheet Climate Action Assessment, Lake Oswego Climate Action Plan Proposed Climate Action Significantly reduce food waste going to landfills Timeframe Near Term (near,medium,long term) Date August 17, 2017 Submitted by(Name) Duke Castle Criteria for Assessment: Climate Impact: Reducing food waste is ranked#3 in terms of GHG reduction by Drawdown Community Benefits Most visible benefit is cost savings to businesses and consumers Financial Implications: Cost to create and disseminate educational material by the city could be minimal Compatibility with the Lake The cost savings would benefit all sectors of the community. Oswego lifestyle: Implementation Issu Requires broad community education effort organized by a citizen committee and/or SAB and a LOSN Action Team Proposed Timing: Near term I. Introduction According to Drawdown, up to 35%of food in high-income economies is thrown out by consumers. WRI estimates that 8%of GHG emissions are caused by food that is thrown out. If it were its own country it would be the third highest emitter after China and the U.S. The loss is not only the food but the money spent to purchase that food. WRI estimates for every$1 spent on training restaurant and grocery store personnel can result in $14 savings. Similarly a study in London showed that for every pound the city government spent on public education resulted in 250 pounds of savings by consumers and 92 pounds to the city in avoided food waste disposal costs. Which Focus Area does this action affect? Food Financial I nformatio How much will this action cost? The action is primarily one of education and its dissemination. It is imagined that the education research could be done by citizen groups such as SAB and LOSN.The dissemination of it could be through city sources such as Hello LO,the Farmer's Market, library and adult community center along with other sources such as the LO Review, schools, LOSN newsletter, etc. With these activities in mind the cost to the city should be minimal. Mar 20 2018 33 Financial Information Is there a payback? How long is it? The reduction in GHG emissions from such an educational and marketing effort could be immediate and one of the few actions that citizens can take that has a direct immediate impact. What is the cost/benefit analysis? WRI research indicates that the payback for businesses can be 14 to 1 for every dollar privately invested. For consumers the WRI research indicates the return could be much higher, up to 250 to 1 for every public sector dollar invested. Who will pay? Businesses, schools and city government Impact Information What is the impact on greenhouse gas reduction? Show your assumptions, include emissions factors and citations. WRI estimates that 8%of GHG are attributed to food that is produced and not eaten. How does this action help Lake Oswego meet its climate goals? According to the Good Company study of 2006 greenhouse gas emissions in Lake Oswego,food was one of the highest sources. Reducing that impact is one of the most immediate and effective thing Lake Oswego citizens can do. What are the community benefits of this action? There are immediate economic benefits to all sectors of the community. Reducing food waste also allows Lake Oswego to do its part in food and resource conservation that the rest of society can use. Actions 1. Provide a best practices guide to help households, schools, businesses and other institutions reduce food waste and consumption. 2. Support edible food donation. 3. Evaluate opportunities for recycling of commercial food waste prior to Metro's mandatory requirements Implementation The time frame of the action—can it be accomplished by the end of 2018 The research, development and implementation of an educational and marketing program could be created by SAB and LOSN with the help of businesses and institutions that could be affected.This could be accomplished by the end of 2018. How will this action be implemented? See above and below resources on potential food share programs, in schools and other institutions: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-07/documents/washingtonschoolfoodshare5087717 a.pdf http://district.schoolnutritionandfitness.com/seymoures/files/SharingTableNews.pdf https://fns-prod.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/cn/SP41 CACFP13 SFSP15 2016os.pdf Mar 20 2018 34 Tree Planting Actions -- Assumptions &Analysis Worksheet Climate Action Assessment, Lake Oswego Climate Action Plan Proposed Climate Action 5,000 Trees in 5 years Timeframe Near-term (near,medium,long term) j Date September 14, 2017 alb_ I iibmitted by(Name) A Stephanie Glazer, with inspiration from Jeff Gudman Criteria for Assessmen Climate Impact: Assuming 2500 Douglas Fir trees and 2500 Oregon Oak trees are planted within 5 years,the annual carbon sequestration starting in Year 10 would be: 92.78 mtons CO2e/year Community Benefits: In addition to aesthetic value,trees provide many health and climate benefits across our community Financial Implications: $10,000 to$20,000 total across 5 years. Compatibility with t Lake Oswego has been an active Tree City USA Community for more than 28 years,with a Oswego lifestyle: strong commitment to preserving and protecting our tree canopy as an essential part of the Lake Oswego character. Implementation Issues: Who will implement this action? Do they have the willingness, resources and knowledge? Is there a designated "owner"and a designated "champion"? Proposed Timing: 2018-2023 Introduction _A short section describing key action(s) that are being proposed, and why they should be included in the plan. Lake Oswego has been an active Tree City USA Community for more than 28 years, with a strong commitment to preserving and protecting our tree canopy as an essential part of the Lake Oswego character. In addition to aesthetic value,trees provide many health and climate benefits across our community. Trees provide the following climate-related benefits: • Reduced heat exposure, especially in sensitive segments of the population, by providing shade to buildings, parks, roads, and more. This means reduced health risk from increased heat waves. • Reduced cooling load by providing shade to buildings, which results in reduced energy consumption from A/C. • Carbon sequestration through creation of biomass. We propose to encourage the planting of native trees that are fast-growing and offer high rates of carbon sequestration. Trees additionally provide the co-benefits of: • Increased property value, • Noise mitigation near busy roads, and Mar 20 2018 35 • Improved air quality. Recognizing the value of trees,the City will achieve a goal of planting 5000 trees in 5 years (by 2022). This action consists of 3 main components, each leveraging the City's relationships with local nurseries and/or bulk discounts to obtain discounted pricing: • The City will buy and plant 500 trees on City-owned property. • The City will convene a forum for sponsors to buy, and volunteers to plant, trees on City-owned land (or ODOT-owned land on which the City gains permission to plant the trees; eg near 1-5). • The City will provide discounted trees to residents through a voluntary program,where residents may purchase discount priced trees to plant and maintain on their own property. To receive the discounted trees, residents would commit to planting them in Lake Oswego or the Lake Oswego Service District. In keeping with the character of Lake Oswego,the City would include Douglas Fir trees and Oregon Oak as the primary tree species in this program. Which Focus Area does this action affect? (Buildings& Energy, Transportation, Land Use&Planning, or Food& Consumption) Buildings& Energy Land Use& Planning Financial Information How much will this action cost? Direct cash outlay: • The City would pay for and plant at least 500 trees in the next 5 years at a cost of [$10,000 to $20,000 total across 5 years]. No direct cash outlay, but some staff time: • The City would create a forum to match up (a) residents that want to sponsor a tree (i.e. pay for the discounted trees),with (b) residents or other volunteers who want to plant the trees. The City's convening role would apply to residents planting or sponsoring trees on City-owned property, (and ODOT-owned property on which the City gains permission to plant the trees—e.g. along 1-5). • The voluntary tree planting program would involve accepting the discounted payment for trees from residents that are willing to commit to planting the trees on their own property. Is there a payback? How long is it? For trees planted near City-owned buildings there would be some payback through reduced A/C energy costs. Additionally,trees are shown to improve property values so the City may benefit from increased revenues associated with higher property values. Who will pay? The City and resident tree sponsors who opt-in. Mar 20 2018 36 Impact Information What is the impact on greenhouse gas reduction? Show your assumptions, include emissions factors and citations. Assuming 2500 Douglas Fir trees and 2500 Oregon Oak trees are planted within 5 years, the annual carbon sequestration starting in Year 10 would be: [92.78 mtons CO2e/year] Calculations: 0.563 x ((0.5 x 23.3) + (0.5 x 16.3)) = 11.15 lbs carbon per tree per year Survival Factor x(Carbon from 50% Fast-growing Hardwood+Carbon from 50% Fast growing Conifer) 5000 X 11.15 x 3.67 (convert to CO2e)/2204.62 (convert to metric tons) =92.78 mtons CO2e Assumes that in Year 10,trees are average age of 12 years. See attached tables from: https://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/method-calculating-carbon- sequestration-trees-urban-and-suburban-settings.pdf) II. The reduced emissions associated with reduced cooling load would be 10%of residential energy use for the 4000 homes participating: XXXXX mtons CO2e/year (equal to 2.5%of total residential energy). Calculations: Assume 4000 homes represents about 25%of residential energy,given approx. 16,000 households In studies, reduced cooling load ranged from 10%-50%, based on number of and type of trees planted. To calculate the scale of impact for 5000 trees, we assumed one tree per each residence up to 4000, achieving 10% savings for those residences, as part of this goal. From: POTENTIAL OF TREE SHADE FOR REDUCING RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE IN CALIFORNIA. by James R.Simpson and E. Gregory McPherson "In Sacramento(climate zone 12), annual savings due to a single, 24 foot tall, 15 year old tree to the west of the building was 12 percent(180 kWh, $20)for an energy efficient house(Figure 2)." Resources: https://energy.gov/downloads/energy-saver-101-landscaping https://www.auburn.edu/academic/forestry wildlife/forest policy ctr/documents/energy-savings-ecol-econ.pdf http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.155.4488&rep=repl&type=pdf How does this action help Lake Oswego meet its climate goals? Trees provide the following climate-related benefits: • Reduced heat exposure, especially in sensitive segments of the population, by providing shade to buildings, parks, roads, and more. This means reduced health risk from increased heat waves. • Reduced cooling load by providing shade to buildings, which results in reduced energy consumption from A/C. • Carbon sequestration through creation of biomass. We propose to encourage the planting of native trees that are fast-growing and offer high rates of carbon sequestration. What are the community benefits of this action? Trees additionally provide the co-benefits of: • Increased property value, Mar 20 2018 37 • Noise mitigation near busy roads, and • Improved air quality ilr Actions Describe your proposed action in more detail with specific targets about what will be achieved. See Above. Describe how the action meets the guiding principles related to consistency with the Lake Oswego lifestyle. Lake Oswego has been a participating Tree City USA for more than 28 years,with a strong commitment to preserving and protecting our tree canopy as an essential part of the Lake Oswego character. Implementation The time frame of the action—can it be accomplished by the end of 2018 The City can begin identifying nursery partners for discounted tree purchases (or they may already have such a relationship), and can begin identifying priority areas for planting. City planting could begin in 2018. The voluntary resident engagement portions would likely require set-up time to create the forums/ organizational structure for (a) the sponsor/volunteer planting on City-owned land and (b) the resident access to discounted trees for their own property. These programs could begin planting in 2018/2019. How will this action be implemented? The City would identify which department should oversee the program and allocate a small budget for tree purchase and for staff time. Is there a person who is responsible for implementation, an "owner"who is willing and available to carry out the action? Likely it would be someone in LO Parks and Recreation. Is there a person who is passionate about this action, a "champion"? Stephanie Wagner,Watershed Council Mar 20 2018 38 Table 2: Survival Factors and Annual Carbon Sequestration Rates for Common Urban Trees Survival Factors by Annual Sequestration Rates by Tree Type and Growth Rate Tree Age Growth Rate (lbs.carbonitfee/year) (yrs) Hardwood Conifer Slow Moderato Fast Slow Moderato Fast Slow Moderato Fast 0 0.873 0.873 0.873 1.3 1.9 2.7 0.7 1.0 1.4 l 0.798 0.798 0.798 1.6 2.7 4.0 0.9 1.5 2.2 2 0.736 0.736 0.736 2.0 3.5 5.4 1.1 2.0 3.1 3 0.706 0.706 0.706 2.4 4.3 6,9 1.4 2.5 4.1 4 0.678 0.678 0.678 2.8 5.2 8.5 1,6 3.1 5.2 5 0.658 0.658 0.658 3.2 6.1 10.1 1.9 3,7 6.4 6 0.639 0.639 0.644 3.7 7.1 11.8 2.2 4.4 7.6 7 0.621 0.621 0.630 4.1 8.1 13.6 2.5 5.1 8.9 8 0.603 0.603 0.616 4.6 9.1 15.5 2.8 5.8 10.2 9 0,585 0.589 0.602 5.0 10.2 17.4 3.1 6.6 11.7 10 0.568 0.576 0.589 5.5 11.2 19,3 3.5 7.4 13.2 11 0.552 0.564 0.576 6.0 12.3 21.3 3.8 8.2 14.7 12 0.536 0.551 0.563 6.5 13.5 23.3 4.2 9.1 16.3 13 0.524 0.539 0.551 7.0 14.6 25.4 4.6 9.9 17.9 14 0512 0.527 0.539 7.5 15.8 27.5 4.9 10.8 19.6 15 0.501 0.516 0.527 8.1 16.9 29.7 5.3 11.8 21.4 16 0.490 0.504 0.516 8.6 18.1 31.9 5,7 12.7 23.2 17 0.479 0.493 0.505 9.1 19.4 34.1 6.1 13.7 25.0 18 0,469 0.483 0.495 9.7 20.6 36.3 6.6 14.7 26.9 19 0.459 0.472 0.484 10.2 21.9 38,6 7.0 15.7 28.8 20 0.448 0.462 0.474 10.8 23.2 41.0 7.4 16.7 30.8 21 0.439 0.452 0.464 11.4 24.4 43.3 7,9 17.8 32.8 22 0.429 0.442 0.454 12.0 25.8 45.7 8.3 18.9 34.9 23 0.419 0.433 0.445 12.5 27.1 48.1 8.8 20.0 37.0 24 0.410 0.424 0.435 13.1 28.4 50.6 9.2 21.1 39.1 25 0.401 0.415 0.426 13.7 29.8 53.I 9.7 22.2 41.3 26 0.392 0.406 0.417 14.3 31.2 55.6 10.2 23.4 43.5 27 0,384 0.398 0.409 15.0 32.5 58.1 10.7 21.6 45.7 28 0.375 0.389 0.400 15.6 33.9 60.7 11.2 25.8 48.0 29 0.367 0.381 0.392 16.2 35.3 63.3 11.7 27.0 50.3 30 0.359 0.373 0.383 16.8 36.8 65.9 12.2 28.2 52.7 31 0.352 0.365 0.375 17.5 38.2 68.5 12.7 29.5 55.1 32 0.344 0.358 0.367 18.1 39.7 71.2 13.3 30.7 57.5 33 0.337 0.350 0,360 18.7 41.1 73.8 13.8 32.0 59.9 34 0.330 0..3.13 0.349 19.4 42.6 76.5 14.3 33.3 62.4 35 0.323 0.336 0.339 20.0 11.] 79.3 14.9 34.7 64.9 8 Method for Calculating Carbon Sequestration by Trees in Urban and Suburban Settings Mar 20 2018 39 Table 1. Common Urban Tree Species r Species Type Growth Species Type Growth Rate Rate Ailanthus,.4ifandrus a/tits ma H F' Maple,bigleaf,•leer marrophylhrrn H S Alder,Furopcan,Alnusglulinosa H F Maple,Nmrway,Ara.platanoides H M Ash,green,Fiuxinus pennaylvanica H F Maple,red,Acernrbnem H M Ash,mountain,American,Scvbus amerwanrr H M Maple,silver,Acersaccharinum H M Ash,white,Praxinaes americana H F Maple,sugax,Acersaceharum 11 S Aspen,bigtooth,Poprrlusgrrmdidentala H M Mulberry,red,MUrusrxrbra H F Aspen,quaking,Papules trermrloides H F Oak,black,Quercus velutina H M Baldcypress,.7'axodium distrclmen C F Oak,blue,Quercus douglase II M Basswood,American,T ilia americana, H F Oak,bur,Quercus macrocarpa H S Beech,American,Pages grandefalia H S Oak,California black,Quercus kelloggii H S Birch,paper(white),Bernie papyvifera I•I M Oak,California White,Quetrus lobelia 11 M Birch,river,Bedrla nigns H M Oak,carryon live,Quercus ehras-olepsis 11 S Birch,yellow.Behdu olleghrmiensis H S Oak,chestnut,Quercusprimrs H S Boxeh.der,AM'ncgundo H F Oak,Chinkapin,Queers muahlenbergii II M Buckeye,Ohio,Aeseulus glabra H S Oak,Laurel,Quercus laurrfolra H F Catalpa,northern,Catalpa speciosa H F Oak,live,Quercus virginrana H F Cedar-red,eastern,.hrniperns vieginiana C M Oak,northern red,Quercus rubra H F Cexlar-white,northern,Thufa occidentalis C M Oak,overcup,Ouercus tram II S Cherry,black,Prunus serotina H F Oak,pin,Quercuspalusiris H F Cherry,pin,Prunuspennsy+lvanices II M Oak,scarlet,Quercus coccvrees 11 F Cottonwood,eastern,Papules delrrrides H M Oak,swamp white,Quercus bicolor H M Crabapple,MMus spp. H M Oak,water,Querrus nigre H M Cucumubertree,Magnolia acuminate FI F Oak,white,Querrus alha II S Dogwood,flowering,Comity forida H S Oak,willow,Quercus plsellos H M Elm,American,Omits americana H F Pecan,Carya illbsoensis H S Elm,Chinese,Ulmuspra-refoliu H M Pine,European black,Pines trigr s C S Elm,rock,Ilmus thamesii H S Pine,jack;Pfrsua bankeienn C F Elm,September,(Amos serntina H F Pine,lablolly,Pimcs teeda C F Elm,Siberian,Wants Faille H F Pine,longleaf Pinuspalurtris C F Elm,slippery,(times rubra H M Pine,ponderosa,Pintos ponderosa C F Fir,balsam,Abiesbalaesmea C S Pine,red,Pnsus resinosu C F FIr,Douglas,Pseudotsuga menziesii C F Pine;Scotch Pfiurssrdvesrrls C S Ginkgo,Ginkgo bilobe H S Pine,shcrtleaf,Piet.:echinara C F Hacleberry,Celrts occidentalis H F Pine,slash,Pisan elliottii C F Hawthorne,Cratasegas app. H M Pine,Virginia,Pious virgerriaria C M Hemlock,eastern,.Tsuge canadensis C M Pine,white eastern,Pines strobes C F Hickory,bttemul,Curya cor diformis H S Poplar,yellow,Liriodendrvn k/gr fens H F Hickory,mockemut,Crnya tomentesa H M Redbud,eastern,CCrcis canaderxsis H M hlickory,shagbark,Carya orates II S Sassafras,Sassafras alhulum H M Hickory,shellbark,Carye laciniosa H S Spruce,black,Picea mariuna C S Hickory,pignut,Carya glabra H M Spruce,blue,Picea pungens C M Holly,American,Ilex opaca H S Spruce,.Norway,Picea able: C M Hcmcylcx:usl,Gledosra iriacanthcs H F Spruce,red,P/eearubens C S Hoptuarihcam,eastern,©soya virginiana II S Spruce,while,Picea glauca C M Hor eclieslnut,con tint'n,Aasculus H F Sugrberry,Celtic laevigute H F lsgspocassemom Kentucky coffcetree,Gymnocladus divicus C F Sweetgum,Liguidambar stsracrJlua II F Linden,little-leaf,Idea cordate H F Sycamore,Platenus occidental(: H F Locust,black,Robiniapseudaacacle H F Tamarack,Lerxe laricina C F l,orsilon plane Erect Platanus X acerifulia II F Walnul,bleck,.7uglansnigra Ii F Magnolia.southern,Magnolia grandifolio H M Willow,black,Salix nigra H F Type: H=Hardwood,C=Conifer Growth Rate: S=Stow.M=Moderate.. F=Fast Method for Calculating Carbon Sequestration by Trees in Urban and Suburban Settings 7 Mar 20 2018 40 URBAN FORESTRY CARBON SEQUESTRATION WORKSHEET (Calculate each reporting year on a separate worksheet;photocopy if more than one sheet is required) Reporting year: 19 A. E. C. D. E. F. G. Species Characteristics Tree Number Survival Number Annual Carbon Age of Age D Factor of Sequestration Sequestered Trees (Pouil, Surviving Rate (Itos) Name Tree Growth T•n 2) Type Rate Planted Trees (lbsltree) (f x r (C x El) (Warta Td 6!a Total Pounds of Carbon Sequestered Total Pounds of Equivalent CO2 Sequestered X 3.67 Equivalent CO2 Sequestered in Short Tons /2000 Method far Calculating Carbon Sequestration by Trees in Urban and Suburban Settings 5 Mar 20 2018 41 Appendix D: 2018 Action Implementation List Transportation Potential Implementers Recommendation 1: "Electrify" transportation. Bold=Primary Action Owner • Community Groups engage local residents, with support from local electric vehicle LOSN Transportation Team (EV)organizations and manufacturers, to increase EV market share to at least 50 (Lisa Adatto, Duke Castle), percent by 2030 and 60 percent by 2040. SAB, City, FORTH o Promote EVs at the 2018 and 2019 car shows, with the goal to have at least 1,000 Lake Oswego residents test drive an EV before 2020 o Develop materials tailored to Lake Oswego that promote EVs and incentives, including $2,500 state rebates. Partner with the City to help disseminate EV information, for example via HelloLO • The City (with guidance from Planning Commission, Transportation Advisory Board, Planning Commission, SAB and Community Groups) develop policies and identify code updates to ensure Transportation Advisory sufficient EV charging infrastructure. For example, encourage EV incentives and code Board, SAB and LOSN updates for parking lots/spaces, City facilities/employees, commercial buildings and Transportation Team (Lisa homes. Adatto, Duke Castle) • The City update and implement its fleet procurement policy such that at least half of the City (Sustainability), SAB, City's fleet is EVs before 2030. For example, the city can explore and test electric Police Dept. motorcycles for the police. • LOSD evaluate the potential for using electric school buses when it renews its LOSN School Team transportation contract in 2020. (Dorothy Atwood, Courtney Clements) Recommendation 2: Make public transit more convenient. • Community Groups partner with TriMet, Metro, Clackamas County and others to triple LOSN Transportation Team transit ridership by 2025 (Bob Sack), City, TAB, o Organize local businesses to petition TriMet for transit options to address employee commuting challenges. o Test and increase access to transit via Universal Bus Passes and innovative on- demand transit programs. • The City work with TriMet to implement proposals for increased service and additional City staff, TAB, SAB, LOSN bus shelters where needed (including upgrades to the Lake Oswego Transit Center on Transportation Team (Bob 4th Street). For example, provide additional park& ride facilities; and increase the Sack), City, TAB frequency of service for Bus#35 (including an express option)with a minimum of 15- minute headways during the weekdays. • The City (with Lake Oswego Chamber of Commerce and other business groups) study City staff, TAB, SAB, LOSN the potential benefits of a demand-responsive circulator or shuttle service, as proposed Transportation Team (Bob in the Lake Oswego Transportation System Plan. Sack), City, TAB • LOSD work with parents and Community Groups to facilitate at least one field trip (per LOSN School Team school per year) or a "Transit Day" when students are encouraged to commute via (Dorothy Atwood, Courtney TriMet. Clements) Buildings and Energy Recommendation 3: Avoid energy waste. • High performance building standards for new construction. Encourage builders and developers to incorporate sustainable building practices to increase the quality, durability, and performance of new buildings in Lake Oswego. The City update and expand its "High Performance Building Guidelines for City SAB (Eliot Metzger, Paul Facilities"to include guidelines for all new commercial and residential development. Soper), City (Sustainability) o Encourage and incentivize (e.g., with lower permitting fees) commercial and Planning Dept, SAB residential developers to follow existing high performance building standards. Examples include LEED (including LEED for Homes), Earth Advantage, or Passive House. Mar 20 2018 42 o Require energy performance benchmarking (i.e., Energy Usage Index - EUI)to Planning Dept, SAB track efficiency of new commercial buildings over [5,000] square feet. The City express its support for efforts to update energy efficiency standards in City Oregon's building codes. LOSD target an EUI of 22 or less in all new construction projects. LOSN School Team (Dorothy Atwood, Courtney Clements), Randy Miller • Energy efficiency upgrades to existing buildings. Help building owners and homeowners save money and increase comfort by taking advantage of state and local programs to help them reduce energy use. Community Groups engage local building industry to develop and facilitate a series of LOSN Energy Action Team, "home energy fairs" in 2018-2019 that showcase opportunities for energy savings (e.g., SAB, city free energy audits, discounts on insulation). The City develop a policy to provide homebuyers information on home energy Planning Dept, SAB performance as part of real estate sales transactions; partner with Oregon Department of Energy and local organizations to offer Home Energy Scores. The City partner with local organizations to facilitate commercial, multifamily, and City, SAB, LOSN Energy and homeowners opportunities to do both seismic and energy upgrades at the same time. Emergency Preparedness Teams LOSD work with local organizations to complete energy audits and efficiency upgrades LOSN School Team at all schools by 2020. (Dorothy Atwood, Courtney Clements), Randy Miller Recommendation 4: Make clean energy more accessible • Community Groups work with businesses, LOSD, and neighborhood groups to LOSN Community Solar develop"community solar" installations to help achieve and surpass the City's 1 (Doug Rich), OCPC, Megawatt goal by 2020 Chamber of Commerce, LOSD o Convening solar information sessions in 2018, along with an outreach and LOSN Community Solar recruiting effort among building owners along Kruse Way (Doug Rich), OCPC, Chamber of Commerce, o Partnering with Clackamas County to publicly recognize "solar champions" as LOSN Economic Vitality part of the Leaders in Sustainability program. Team, Clackamas Sustainability Office o Support and develop local investment groups interested in local clean energy SAB (Karl Friesen) technology projects • The City streamline [and waive fees] permitting for commercial and residential Planning Dept, SAB development and remodeling if the project include installation of solar PV systems. • LOSD continue to partner with Energy Trust to evaluate solar potential on existing LOSD, LOSN Energy Action schools and tap into financial incentives from Energy Trust's Path to Net Zero" program Team for new school construction. Mar 20 2018 43 FOOD AND CONSUMPTION Recommendation 5: Increase sustainable food options. A food program to decrease agricultural GHG emissions by 30-50 percent. • Community Groups partner with the City, LOSD, local businesses to "nudge" residents LOSN Food &School toward food choices that are tastier, healthier, and low-impact(e.g., shifting Teams (Dorothy Atwood, consumption away from high impact foods such as beef). Courtney Clements, Natalie Bennon), City • The City share recipes and tastings for healthy, low-impact meals via HelloLO and Adult City (Sustainability), ACC Community Center • LOSD pilot, with support of parents and Community Groups, several healthier, low- LOSN Food &School impact school menus Teams (Dorothy Atwood, Courtney Clements, Natalie Bennon) More local organic food options. • Community Groups promote the benefits of organic food and its availability through LOSN Food Team (Dorothy stores, restaurants and local produce stands Atwood, Courtney Clements), City, PRAB • The City will continue support for the Farmer's Market and Luscher Farm Community City, PRAB, LOSN Food Supported Agriculture (CSA) Team (Dorothy Atwood, Courtney Clements), • The City support the expansion of community gardens beyond Luscher Farm that City, PRAB, LOSN Food include the promotion of edible landscaping and gleaning. Team (Dorothy Atwood, Courtney Clements) Recommendation 6: Cut food waste in half • Community Groups pilot test"ugly food" stands or other means of selling produce that is otherwise wasted. • City work with Clackamas County to provide a "best practices" guide and tools for City, Clackamas County, households, schools, businesses and other institutions to reduce food waste (including LOSN Food Team (Dorothy food donation and commercial food composting). Atwood, Courtney Clements, Natalie Bennon), Chamber of Commerce • LOSD create"Share Tables" or similar programs at each school to ensure food that is LOSN Food &School otherwise wasted ends up in households that need it. Teams (Dorothy Atwood, Courtney Clements, Natalie Bennon) Recommendation 7: Extend useful life of clothing,electronics and building materials. • The City explore pilot projects with Republic Services or others to leverage mobile City(Sustainability), SAB, technology in creating better access to information about how to get usable goods (such Republic Services as electronics and clothing)to those who need them. The City explore a "tool library" model at Lake Oswego library or Operations Center for City(Sustainability), SAB residents to access shared tools or equipment, including electric power tools (rather than purchasing, owning, and disposing individually). LOSD preserve and reuse construction materials from facilities such as Lakeridge LOSN School Team Junior High School by partnering with local organizations that help deconstruct and (Dorothy Atwood, Courtney repurpose buildings. Clements) • Community Groups explore opportunities to partner with LOSD and local businesses LOSN School Team to create "Fix it Fairs" in 2018 (Dorothy Atwood, Courtney Clements) Mar 20 2018 44 Natural Resources and Resilience Recommendation 8: Plan for new extremes • The City update disaster management policies and procedures in preparation for more City, city disaster frequent extreme weather events (e.g., heavy rain, floods, fires, droughts). preparedness team • The City assess where new rules, policies, or programs are needed in advance of City, city disaster extreme weather(e.g., sufficiency of existing heating/cooling centers, necessary preparedness team updates to scheduling rules for construction and trash pickup). • LOSD, with support from parent organizations and Community Groups, review and LOSN School Team update policies for weather extreme preparedness (e.g., extreme heat policies for (Dorothy Atwood, Courtney outdoor activities, indoor comfort, and air quality). Clements), LOSD staff Recommendation 9: Manage water wisely. • The City increase promotion of free water audits through partnerships with Chamber of City, LOSN Water Action Commerce and Lake Oswego School District and continue the promotion of highly Team efficient water fixtures and appliances • The City continue to explore and promote opportunities to use harvested rain water and Planning Dept, Planning grey water for irrigation Commission • The City review updated flood zones, in particular for Foothills area. Planning Dept • The City implement and assess effectiveness of new stormwater management goals Planning Dept, SAB and guidance. • The City explore technologies that can reclaim water and energy waste at the Tryon City Parks Dept, LOSN Creek Waste Treatment Plant and other water treatment facilities. Water Action Team Recommendation 10: Preserve and enhance our forests and natural areas. • Community Groups plant 1,000 new trees a year for five years, in partnership with Oswego Watershed Council, LOSD and local property owners, with an emphasis on opportunities for native species, Friends of Trees habitat restoration and biodiversity. • Community Groups preserve trees and improve open space on private and LOSD Oswego Watershed Council, properties, including removal of tree ivy, and other invasive plants, to improve the Friends of Trees viability of existing trees. • The City buy and plant 500 trees on City-owned property and convene a forum for City Parks Dept sponsors to buy, and volunteers to plant, trees on City-owned land, or ODOT-owned land on which the City gains permission to plant the trees, such as along 1-5. • The City increase preservation of trees and improvement of open space, through review Planning Commission, City and update of the Development Code as relates to tree preservation, and enforcing tree Parks Dept preservation requirements on sites that are developed prior to annexing to the City. • The City support a tree program with annual Habitat Enhancement Fund grants and City Parks Dept. Friends of potential "tree-bates" on water bills for residents that purchase trees to plant and Trees maintain on their own property. • The City advocate to update fire management processes in Tryon State Park and City- City (Sustainability), City owned parks and natural areas. Parks Dept Mar 20 2018 45 Appendix E. Initial compiled matrix of actions SAB Climate Action Planning: Focus Areas and Actions Focus Area Climate Action Goals Climate Action Strategies GHG Impact Buildings+ Achieve and surpass Programs and pilots to demonstrate community solar Reduced Energy current LO solar goal GHG (1 MW) Solar workshops for residential and commercial installations intensity of City map of solar'hot spots' energy Compilation of solar'references' in the City(neighbors that have installed solar)via Next Door or Facebook or other means Ensure all new public Full implementation of the City's High Performance Building Standard Reduce buildings in LO meet energy high performance Net zero schools demand buildings criteria Energy performance benchmarking(city and/or community) Identify energy savings XX commercial and residential buildings audited (via Energy Trust, may Reduce measures in at least target big energy users) energy 50%of LO homes and demand businesses Pilot energy efficiency incentives(including multi-family):green leases, weatherization, insulation,windows,etc. Electrify all generators Programs to help local businesses(e.g.,food trucks)install cleaner,electric Reduce GHG in LO generators intensity of energy/ cleaner air Showcase energy- Incentives to encourage deconstruction instead of demolition of older efficient,climate- homes resilient design in new developments Identify at least two areas for demonstrating attainable housing designs Outline recommended criteria to allow for energy-efficient design and clean energy technologies in new commercial development Establish LO investment fund in energy efficiency or clean energy technologies Create high school STEM program for energy efficiency and clean energy Invite local businesses to pilot new clean energy or efficiency technologies in partnership with local university Explore voluntary energy ratings for homes Transportati Biking Goal--increase Safe biking routes to school, promote biking to school Reduce on the amount of biking VMT in LO Public forum on bike paths--educate the public, rally enthusiasm and get input on priorities Create LO bike map Increase bike paths Mar 20 2018 46 Create a approach to bike paths that includes separated paths that are safe for older people and kids Bike path to Portland Bike path on the side of hwy 43 Bridge across the river Public"campaign" of letter writing and meetings with Councilors etc Provide incentives for employer-sponsored bicycle programs, including for City employees. Conduct a community survey to understand barriers to biking. Implement projects that reallocate a portion of the right-of-way to spaces that are friendly to people walking Improve biking amenities at City facilities such as showers, lockers, and covered/secured bike parking. Offer bike sharing like Portland BIKETOWN Consider electric bike sharing(e.g., Bewegan °) Set up electric bike demonstrations Try to promote bicycling as"utilitarian" as well as"recreational." (e.g.,you don't need to dress in lycra to ride a bike to the grocery store) Mass transit--goal-- Create better shelters Reduce increase the%of total VMT trips that occur on - Use shelters to purify surrounding air public transportation Create a park and ride,or better parking options near Safeway(I think this has been ruled out in a previous study) Increase the frequency of service Create a bike barn at the city--so that people can ride bikes to transit Promote employer sponsored bus passes--City of LO should sponsor bike passes for employees Promote the trolley--create commuter system Promote electric busses Offer training at the senior center--how to use public transportation Provide shuttles to SW corridor light rail Recruit a citizens committee to advocate for transit Coordinate with neighboring local governments to promote use of transit, carpooling, and car-sharing. Affiliate with the Westside Transportation Alliance to coordinate advocacy for public transit Mar 20 2018 47 Provide additional park-and-ride lots to promote public transit and reduce downtown congestion. Develop ridesharing(e.g., Lyft, Uber, Bridj)for low density neighborhoods to provide links to public transit Integrate transit with land-use planning Promote one or more new high density neighborhoods(e.g., Foothills)as "transit oriented developments" Consider an L.O.owned and operated frequent shuttle between Lake Grove and downtown L.O. Electric vehicles- Strategy:Actions that support purchase and usage of electric vehicles Significantly Increase number of reduce GHG new electric vehicle Develop and execute a campaign to provide decision makers and the public emissions purchases opportunities to drive an EV and experience its benefits. and air in LO to 50%by 2030 Develop and provide information about electric and hybrid vehicles and pollution incentive programs on the City website. from burning Work with local automobile dealerships to increase electric vehicle stock, fossil fuel and improve training and incentives for EV sales. Take advantage of the$2500 rebate for new EV purchases under the new state transportation program. City purchase or contract for X%electric vehicles Transportati Electric vehicles- School District contract with electric school busses on (cont) Increase number of new electric vehicle Aggregate and incentivize bulk purchases of electric vehicles for fleet,car- purchases in LO to 50% sharing,or individual use to drive prices lower. by 2030(cont) Promote carsharing companies that utilize EV's(e.g., ReachNow). Strategy:Actions to support increased EV charging stations Adopt building codes that promote EV charging infrastructure--look at building in conduits as new streets and buildings are constructed Take advantage of potential opportunities under the new state clean fuels program. Advocate(as a city)at the state and regional level for better charging station infrastructure like standardized plug-ins,signage,standardized payment methodology, roadways and mapping strategy Promote workplace charging Increase charging infrastructure in Lake Oswego; multifamily, HOA, public right-of-way, Electric Avenue Car-Sharing--bring Promote"one car" philosophy("your backup/second vehicle can be Reduced more car sharing to carsharing, public transit, bicycle,etc.") consumptio LO/reduce number of n, not as Training on how to use Uber and Lyft many cars Mar 20 2018 48 cars Look into private vans purchased Increase incentives for sustainable City employee commuting such as Reduced through competitions or cost shares. congestion Separate Parking and Housing Cost (less idling) Provide Preferential Parking for car pooling,car sharing in work place and Promote educational facilities cleaner& more fuel Evaluate parking requirements efficient Implement parking pricing cars Evaluate approaches such as retrofitting,charging for, and reducing on- street parking Examine guaranteed ride home programs for commercial property owners Campaign to increase awareness of how transportation costs factor into the total cost of living Promote virtual meetings through high speed Internet(1 G) Educate on carbon offsets for air travel Explore incentives for less polluting commercial truck traffic Food+ Food Awareness Begin a community campaign to educate the public about food choice as Reduced Consumptio part of a climate-friendly lifestyle(such as,through cooking classes or GHG n school curriculum). intensity of food Specifically encourage reduced consumption of red meat and dairy products and other carbon-intensive foods(such as,through school menu changes) Food Purchasing Increase purchasing of local, low carbon content food alternatives Reduced throughout the community. GHG intensity of Partner with nonprofit organizations to promote the purchase of climate- food friendly food and products. Implement a "Buy climate-friendly first"food purchasing policy for public institutions including city and county governments,schools,and hospitals Food Production Reduce GHG intensive inputs and retain carbon and other nutrients on Reduced Methods agricultural land. GHG intensity of Transition to agricultural methods that reduce GHGs.Support efforts of food Oregon Department of Agriculture,Oregon Tilth, Oregon State University, Willamette Farm and Food Coalition,and other partners. Strengthen land use regulations which protect farm lands, particularly those on high-value agricultural soils. Support acquisition or protection of land for local agriculture and food production that results in net carbon benefits through decreased transportation or production emissions. Mar 20 2018 49 Remove barriers to using greywater in agriculture.Work with state lawmakers to find solutions for greywater re-use. Local Food System Increase participation in and accessibility to local food programs, including Reduced community supported agriculture(CSA) programs,and encourage GHG neighborhood-scale food production. intensity of food Expand community gardening and urban agriculture. Develop an updated regional emergency food distribution plan that accounts for climate-and energy-based disruptions. Expand community gardens on public and private lands including school campuses,City lands,and church properties. Encourage planting of non-invasive food-bearing trees and shrubs on public and private lands. Reevaluate limitations on numbers and types of animals permitted under the city's code to allow,where appropriate,an increase in the number and variety of food-producing animals that can be kept by urban residents. Edible Landscapes Model and promote edible landscaping and gleaning. Reduced GHG intensity of food Waste Reduction-- Support edible food donation. materials Food mgmt/ Provide a best practices guide to help households and businesses reduce reduced food waste and consumption. consumptio Evaluate opportunities for recycling/composting of commercial food waste. n Public Awareness Determine and implement effective ways to reduce and track consumption materials Strategy: Reduce based emissions. mgmt/ consumption of reduced carbon intensive Implement an education campaign for waste and consumption reduction consumptio goods and services. strategies. n An education kit on waste reduction, collection, and separation should be provided to all residents and businesses upon initial occupancy. Support a culture change by applying community-based social marketing and providing other outreach and education Support"collaborative consumption" community projects. Public Awareness Improve recycling programs, implement new education and outreach,and materials Strategy: Expand expand public space recycling. mgmt/ community recycling reduced and composting. Update the multi-family recycling ordinance to encourage more diversion. consumptio Increase resource efficiency in schools and other organizations. n Promote materials reuse by construction of a re-use warehouse Food+ Public Awareness Introduce environmentally preferable purchasing(EPP)guidelines for City materials Mar 20 2018 50 Consumptio Strategy: Improve the procurement. mgmt/ n (cont) sustainability of City reduced operations and Assess the feasibility of co-digesting food waste and biosolids at the consumptio purchases. wastewater treatment facility n Construction and Enact an ordinance that requires all construction and demolition waste materials Demolition Debris materials to be sorted for reusable or recyclable materials. mgmt/ Recycling reduced consumptio n Reuse and Repair Promote reuse and repair. materials mgmt/ reduced consumptio n Purchasing Evaluate elements of supply chain that have highest impact to carbon reduced footprint-prioritize efforts accordingly. GHG intensity of Increase purchasing of materials containing recycled material content,that goods have reduced packaging,and that can be returned to the manufacturer for remanufacturing, reuse, or full recycling. Establish a local forum for sharing best low carbon purchasing practices (include purchasing experts from major institutions like hospital,schools, and county). Federal/State Policy Support state efforts to develop a consumption-based GHG inventory reduced Advocacy methodology and to adopt standards, incentives,and/or mandates for GHG carbon foot-printing and labeling of products. intensity of goods Participate actively in the process to develop state and federal product stewardship programs and legislation.Support opportunities for producers to develop responsible manufacturing, product and package design and reuse of recovered materials. Increase product Actively support new state and national product stewardship legislation materials stewardship that requires producers to be involved in end-of-product-life management, mgmt/ either through product design changes(e.g.compostable snack bags), reduced investing in take back programs(e.g.Oregon E-cycles), or placing a fee on consumptio the sale of products to support diversion (e.g.Oregon Bottle Bill). n Promote policies at the local,state and federal level that implement carbon pricing related to product and materials life cycles(e.g.,emissions cap or carbon tax), including imports(border adjustment mechanism/carbon tariff if necessary). Lobby at the state level for better product labeling that includes information about greenhouse gas emissions associated with products. Pursue a regional approach to developing infrastructure for Zero Waste activities Coordinate and participate in regional land conservation efforts that will provide greater opportunities for carbon sequestration. Mar 20 2018 51 Conduct research to Follow research being conducted by 1)the EPA's West Coast Forum on reduced determine the most Climate Change and Materials Management, 2)Action Item GHG effective next steps in recommendations from the Materials Management subcommittee of the intensity of the area of Oregon Governor's Global Warming Committee's Roadmap 2020 plan, and goods consumption and 3)Oregon Department of Environmental Quality systems-based GHG waste. inventory,to determine highest priority and most cost effective measures to address GHG production in the materials management sector. Determine the greenhouse gas emissions profile from the current solid waste collection system and provide recommendations on how to reduce carbon emissions within the system. Land Use+ Walkable/bikeable Create 20-minute neighborhoods: Encourage neighborhood villages(e.g. Reduce Planning neighborhoods and First Addition, Boones Ferry @ Kruse commercial district, etc)with access VMT/ Land Use patterns to by walking/biking paths from surrounding neighborhoods. reduce reduce congestion congestion densityand Increase activity and destinations in neighborhood villages (increased (and reduce TOD) Increase density near the neighborhood villages. idling) Example goal:By 2030, Change zoning standards as needed to allow neighborhood cafes,food 90%of households will stands, and small-business retail. be within 20 minutes' reach of basic, daily Change zoning standards as needed to allow for increased housing density non work needs by in urban core and transit corridors. bike or foot. Develop quality medium-and high-density owner-occupied and rental housing for all income brackets. Complete Streets Improve the biking/walking infrastructure; use street trees to separate bike Reduce lanes and sidewalks from traffic VMT Design neighborhood streets to calm traffic, increase water absorption,and increase green space. Change city street standards to encourage this. Improve accessibility for people of different ages and physical mobility(eg include benches,ADA compliant, etc) Improve access and orientation for all users: auto drivers, pedestrians,and bicyclists Safe Routes to Schools TBD Reduce VMT Open Space Increase acreage of City green space to improve carbon sequestration; carbon Management (incorporate into walkable/bikeable infrastructure) sequestratio n Electrify Lawn Lawn equipment-voluntary trade-in, Parks Dept, businesses Reduced Equipment GHG intensity of lawn care/ cleaner air Mar 20 2018 52 Protect trees Outreach to County to support tree codes in unincorporated LO and carbon enforcement of existing LO tree ordinances relating to development and sequestratio annexation. n Continued participation in Tree City USA Inventory LO trees Consider trees as part of City's assets Increase acreage of protected areas Plant 5000 trees in 5 City to plant trees in parks,along streets, in parking lots carbon years sequestratio Program to include resident participation in a voluntary tree planting effort, n in which the City subsidizes tree cost through bulk purchase agreement with supplier Plant trees along Highway 5 to minimize noise and air quality impacts to nearby neighborhoods. Mar 20 2018 53 APPENDIX F.Summary Record of Public Comments Inputs/Ideas Received via Email: Tree Code and Solar You might consider changing the LO tree code to take into account the problem of global warming. The amount of carbon sequestered by trees blocking a solar array is approximately 10%of the atmospheric carbon production permanently eliminated by the solar array. Roads and Heat Island Effect Our streets are being"paved"with a black slurry that not only is an ugly mess still after a month (even after one thorough street sweep) but most importantly, it has created a measurable heat increase that radiates over my yard and home. I've always trusted LO to use best practices and materials, but this is just an awful change. I would like to know if you have an idea who would be best suited for me to take my concerns to. My immediate concern is that my own efforts to be sustainable/low water/low energy use homeowner are wiped away by this one act that I had no say in,and my deepest foundational concern is that these heat islands are being created all over town. I live in the Westlake neighborhood. I've seen the same material recently being put down all over Village on the Lake. Tree Planting and Preservation In regard to planting trees: Promote proper stewardship of the urban forest by informing people how to properly plant and water trees.-this is included below. Plant the right tree in the correct place to help establish healthy trees and increase the tree canopy. Look at recently developed areas to increase the planting of trees. Planting trees,especially tall-growing native trees because these trees help to maintain and moderate climate.The majestic trees comprising the LO urban forest are disappearing at a rapid pace. It is critical that the Development Code be reviewed and updated as it relates to tree preservation. This should be a top priority since many native old growth/big trees are being removed with the building of new homes. Make sure mitigation trees are planted and maintained and not removed. Inventory of neighborhood trees with the count and species. Included in this inventory should be the health of the tree. Tree removal requests for any large"invasion list tree"should go through the type II tree removal process. The current list of "invasive"trees should be reviewed and revised. Mar 20 2018 54 Inputs/Ideas Received via Open House in March 2018: (attached) Mar 20 2018 55 Resources & Resilience Comments Z1P-igW--n`( on �n , 77471d4e --P&r r (f{ ei ffi ()A-s gf /r ( V ci Cif 1a 5 . (2(--) -t ( it.)( f h 9 :olar( ) eOkk(0- -Pcfrii0T 0,0 pr 6 61 A 10 e ( i aS -- ( r 4- 4Io s 1 &fro ) �S (,):), ,t4k. 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(.19Loti (2.G ) �36l 40.'29 terA-0 6 JIV II- IS aiJ.7ere- 4 ik1446/ r 5p()), 6,1 ---ruk,LD v(A vezp'r9 �°rGp �1 tig.- #4-2 1-1-VA/ ktovJ n-ry cAN AterV tr(e. c-01;ve--'/-0 �p�v`� �e?"�✓ `tom-r.ry 2a.6•, Buildings & Energy Comments 1, MN "Vat catethd, a) / 4 - C. Aotive, 7 ie0r eFetiV ie9 7;:thie ei/ vi-e S:;(1 (116 rejitYD 0,6111-€ (2111-A-- 441#6,v 44-0' I / I 67v,-4, /34,0"-- ° C-11,67,./ /)1,14J-4.tA Avec etA61 f-tev %-/// V Fzzt Akisi salA, S1,4 COI 51 .34 Consumption Comments • Ccui• 1�� c ie•n i.tsL_ Consumption Comments ��- Ctic APPENDIX 2: ICLEI REVISED CLIMATE ACTION PLAN AND REPORT Emissions Reduction Summary for Lake Oswego With Suggested Implementation Steps Produced by ICLEI USA, updated June 10, 2019 This memo presents analysis of ten actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the Lake Oswego community. Eight of the actions were drawn from Practical Climate Actions for Lake Oswego. In addition, two new actions were added: residential heat pumps, and rooftop solar potential. All reduction values are reported as annual metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (abbreviated as MTCO2e). Reductions are for the year 2040, and indicate that annual emissions in 2040 would be that amount lower than if the measure were not implemented. Implementation time for the actions will vary, so some actions may reach most or all of the indicated reduction before 2040. Emissions reduction Action Description (MTCO2e) Electric vehicles 60% of new vehicles electric by 2040 95,147 Transit Triple existing transit ridership 2,302 40 Miles of Bike lanes or paths with supportive Bicycles facilities 796 Effect of 2023 State Energy Code per executive Efficient new construction order 17-20 380 Rooftop Solar Potential for rooftop solar in Lake Oswego 18,319 Incentives lead 50% of households replacing NG Heat Pumps furnace each year to switch to heat pump 6,616 Existing building efficiency Efficiency education for residents 6,667 Education to encourage lower meat consumption by Low meat diet residents 1,622 Programs working with grocery stores to reduce food Food waste reduction waste 416 5000 trees planted, 1000 on City land, 4000 on Trees residential property 295 Table 1: Summary of emissions reduction actions Emissions Reduction by Action 100000 90000 0 80000 70000 60000 - a 50000 - F 40000 u 30000 0 20000 — t 10000 z 0 a Q,h C\ C , ex , (71 `, 4) \,�O J�{,Q any �a� o� o€� �tee5 • �\ecC., .00 \a`�ao � �e ec°� Projected Electricity Emissions Factors The analysis for many of the actions is dependent on the emissions factor for electricity. For 2017, Portland General Electric (PGE) reported an emissions factor of 869.8 lbs CO2/MWh. PGE also reports a generation mix of 9% wind and 15% hydro, with the remaining 76% made up from natural gas, coal and purchased energy'. The Oregon renewable portfolio standard requires 50% renewable generation by 2040, which should mean about 35% fossil generation, since existing hydro does not count towards the RPS. This will mean about a 55% reduction in emissions per MWh by 2040, for an emissions factor of about 400 lbs CO2/MWh, which is the factor used in analyzing each of the actions. Some of the actions (energy efficiency for new homes, energy efficiency for existing buildings, rooftop PV) reduce electricity use. The impact of these actions is smaller when the electricity emissions factor is lower. Other actions (electric vehicles, heat pumps) substitute electricity for other fuels. The impact of these actions is larger when the electricity emissions factor is lower. Transportation Actions Electric Vehicles The electric vehicle action is modeled based on the analysis in Practical Climate Actions for Lake Oswego, with the EV percentage of new vehicle sales increasing gradually from an estimated 2.5% in 2018 to 60% in 2040. One change made to the analysis is to model growth in total new car sales as increasing 0.92% per year, which is the average annual population growth in Lake Oswego from 2010-2017 (Practical Climate Actions for Lake Oswego modeled total new car sales increasing 2% per year). 1 https://www.portlandgeneral.com/our-company/energy-strategy/how-we-generate-electricity Avoided emissions from gasoline vehicles are modeled assuming they are driven 13,474 miles per year, with an average fuel economy of 24.8 miles per gallon. Emissions from electric vehicles are estimated assuming an energy usage of 35 kWh/100 miles, and using the projected electric emissions factor for 2040 outlined above. This results in an emissions reduction of 95,147 metric tons. Electric Vehicles Implementation Steps Timeline City fleet electric vehicles • Fully implement goal that all replacement fleet vehicles should be electric or hybrid, except when not possible because of special vehicle requirements. • Collect and provide data to all departments on available EV and hybrid models and capabilities. • Explore purchase and leasing options available through the Climate Mayors EV purchasing collaborative. • Add charging points for fleet vehicles as needed (where possible also make these available to public). • Factor EV maintenance cost savings into purchasing decisions (see data from NYC fleet). • Train staff in EV maintenance. Community Education • Collect and provide data to public on available EV and hybrid models and capabilities. • Hold ride and drive events, using fleet vehicles and/or in cooperation with vehicle dealerships. • Promote PGE incentive for home charging stations. Code update • Require charging stations in multifamily housing and parking garages. • Example from Arcadia, CA: City of Arcadia, CA, Code of Ordinances § 9103.07.140 (2018) (reviewing Authority has the power to require multifamily housing developments, new parking facilities with over 100 parking spaces, or redesigned facilities with over 150 parking spaces to have EV infrastructure). School buses • Work with school district to explore electric buses when service contract is up for renewal. • Funds may be available through Oregon DEQ (depending on age of existing buses). • In some locations, utilities are paying for use of school bus batteries during summer. Note: school bus electrification not analyzed as separate action because of insufficient data. Transit The transit action assumes 900 new daily transit commuters, with a 12 mile one-way average commute. The emissions reduction was calculated assuming riders would otherwise be commuting alone in a vehicle getting 24.8 miles per gallon. Since the proposed actions involve encouraging additional commuters to use existing transit vehicles which have significant excess capacity, additional emissions from transit vehicles were assumed to be zero. This results in an emissions reduction of 2,302 metric tons. Transit Implementation Steps Timeline Ferry service • Continue exploring ferry service to downtown Portland. TriMet Advocacy • Continue to advocate for improved TriMet service • Advocate for improved bus shelters New Transit Service Explore additional transit services independent of TriMet, including flexible route or demand responsive service. • Service to employers in Lake Oswego. • Service connecting Lake Oswego residents to major regional employers. • Example: Northwest Connecticut Transit Service Bicycles Practical Climate Actions for Lake Oswego identifies utilitarian biking as a recommended action. The bicycle measure analysis is based on the report Moving Cooler2, which identifies typical percentage of trips by bicycle for different population densities and levels of bicycle amenities. Two different scenarios are examined. The first would require about 40 miles of bicycle lanes or paths throughout Lake Oswego, as well as secure bicycle parking, and availability of short-term bike rentals (such as Biketown). The second scenario is the same, but would require about 80 miles of bike lanes or paths. The first scenario is estimated to have the result that about 2.7% of all trips will be taken by bicycle, with an emissions reduction of 796 metric tons CO2e. The second scenario is estimated to result in 5% of all trips by bicycle, with an emissions reduction of 1,558 metric tons CO2e. The proposed bicycle and pedestrian bridge across the Willamette River would be an important start to building a more complete bicycle network. It would allow cyclists to commute to dowtown Portland, and to access the Orange Line light rail. It would also provide a focal point for connecting bicycle trails within Lake Oswego. 2 Cambridge Systematics, Inc. Moving Cooler: An Analysis of Transportation Strategies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions—Technical Appendices. October, 2009 Bicycle Implementation Steps Timeline Bike/pedestrian bridge • Would connect to bike trail to downtown Portland (7 miles). Clackamas County currently undertaking study. Electric assist bike share • Example: Chattanooga, TN Bike Paths and Lanes • Develop bike paths and lanes and designated bike routes within Lake Oswego Buildings Actions Rooftop Solar This action looks at the total potential if solar panels were installed on all suitable roof space (residential and commercial) in Lake Oswego. The potential is estimated using the Google Project Sunroof tool. Project Sunroof estimates solar potential for many cities and zipcodes across the US. The tool cannot (as of 3/27/2019) provide an estimate for the city boundaries of Lake Oswego, but it can provide an estimate for zip codes 97034 and 97035. From comparison on Google Maps it appears that the two zip codes completely contain the City of Lake Oswego, but that they also contain a small area outside the city. Thus the solar potential will be slightly overestimated. Not all roof area identified by the tool will actually be suitable for solar installation. This analysis assumes that 80% of potential for flat roofs and 50% of the potential for sloped roofs could be met. This would result in generation of 100 million kWh annually from rooftop solar. Using the 2040 projected electricity emissions factor, this would result in an emissions reduction of 18,319 MTCO2e. Solar Implementation Steps Timeline Large Roofs • Reach out to property managers and building owners with large roof area, including Shorenstein and Yakima. • Project Sunroof identifies five roofs with a capacity for over 950 kW of solar each, and an additional eleven roofs with capacity between 500 and 950 kW. Residential and Small Business • Solarize campaign to reach residents and small businesses. • Would need to hire dedicated intern to manage this, or partner with external implementing organization, such as EnergySage. Energy Efficiency for New Homes Executive Order 17-20 instructs the State of Oregon to adopt a residential building code equivalent to the US DOE Net Zero Ready standard by no later than October 2023. Rather than analyzing additional actions for the City, this action looks at the impact in Lake Oswego of this change to the state code. Building codes are enforced at the local level, so ensuring Lake Oswego building department staff are trained to effectively enforce the new code will be important to ensure the savings are realized. Energy efficiency of homes is measured using the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index. This index gives predicted energy use as a percentage of that for a typical home built to comply with the 2006 energy code. DOE estimates that homes built to the Net Zero Ready standard have a HERS rating in the low to mid 50s--that is they use about 55% as much energy as a typical 2006 new home, or a 45% reduction in energy use. Advances in the model energy code, particularly in the 2009 and 2012 versions, have already brought new homes to a HERS rating of about 60--a 40% reduction since 2006. Therefore, the Net Zero Ready standard is estimated to result in about an additional 7.5% energy use reduction, compared to new homes under the current energy code, saving an additional 640 kWh and 24 therms of natural gas per home per year, on average. Note that this analysis is based on comparing a home built under the expected new Oregon energy code to one built under the current Oregon energy code. The impact of building a new home, whether on vacant land or replacing an existing home, would be included in a business-as-usual scenario, and only the difference between the two standards for that new home is considered here. Based on permit data for FY 2015-16 and FY 2016-17, on average 92 new homes are built in Lake Oswego each year. At this rate, 1,564 new homes will be built between 2023 (when the new code takes effect) and 2040. Energy savings in these new homes will result in an emissions reduction of 380 metric tons CO2e. New Building Energy Efficiency Implementation Timeline Hold Energy Rating System workshop for City staff 0-6 months Train staff on energy code updates as they are released Ongoing Energy Efficiency for Existing Buildings The energy savings potential for existing buildings is estimated based on creation of an `information gateway' to help residents understand and access energy efficiency options. This represents a targeted effort to provide residents with information about energy efficiency options, incentives and financing options. The potential impact of such an effort is drawn from the California Energy Commission report Options for Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings.3 Participants would adopt a variety of actions, such as insulation and high efficiency HVAC and appliances. The report assumes adoption rates for these actions based on an existing energy audit program from Southern California Edison, and estimates an average annual savings of 619 kWh and 56 therms per household. Across all Lake Oswego residents, this results in an emissions reduction of 6,667 metric tons. 3 https://www.energy.ca.gov/2005publications/CEC-400-2005-039/CEC-400-2005-039-CMF.PDF Existing Building Energy Efficiency Implementation Timeline Education • Provide information to residents about energy efficiency options and about incentives available through Energy Trust. Energy Audits • Provide information to residents about how they can get a home energy audit. • Partner with audit organizations to provide information about energy efficiency options. Energy Score • Examine the effectiveness of Portland's Energy Score requirement for sellers of single family homes, and consider adopting a similar requirement. Heat Pumps This action looks at incentives to replace natural gas furnaces in existing and new homes with high-efficiency heat pumps. The Energy Trust of Oregon currently provides rebates for replacement of electric resistance heat with heat pumps, but these are not available to households currently using natural gas, heating oil or propane. Census data shows that about 62% of households in Lake Oswego currently heat with natural gas, and a few hundred heat with fuel oil or propane. The high cost of fuel oil and propane make those homes particularly good targets for conversion to heat pumps. The analysis assumes that 50% of households using natural gas, fuel oil or propane would convert to heat pumps by 2040. Given the projected 2040 electricity emissions factor, heating a home with a heat pump will produce about half the emissions of a natural gas furnace. This will result in an overall emissions reduction of 6,616 Metric Tons CO2e. Heat Pump Implementation Timeline Education • Include information about heat pumps in energy efficiency educational materials. • Target households currently using fuel oil or propane with information on potential cost savings. • Target households currently using electric resistance heating with information about cost savings and Energy Trust incentives and financing options for heat pumps. City Facilities Ongoing • Investigate opportunities for conversion to heat pumps in City facilities when replacing equipment. Consumption Actions Low Meat Diet The low meat diet action models a 50% reduction in meat consumption across all meat types, for those participating in the diet change. It is assumed that 10% of the Lake Oswego population would participate. Consistent with the analysis in Practical Climate Actions for Lake Oswego, the meat calories are not replaced, as it is assumed an overall reduction in calories is beneficial for health. USDA data4 on average US food consumption is used for starting consumption of different food types. Emissions factors per Calorie for different food types from a consumption based inventory for the San Francisco Bay Areas were used to calculate the associated emissions reduction. The diet change represents about a 17% reduction in food related emissions for those participating. The overall annual emissions reduction is 1,622 metric tons. Low Meat Diet Implementation Steps Timeline • Work with city owned farm to promote meals and recipes based on locally grown vegetables and fruits. Reduce Food Waste The estimated reduction in food waste from a consumer education program is taken from A Roadmap to Reduce US Food Waste by 20%: Technical Appendix6. These changes reduce the amount of food that needs to be produced, thus avoiding both emissions from food waste in landfills, and the much larger upstream emissions from food production Additional food waste reduction strategies could be implemented working with grocery stores and school cafeterias, but limited local control over food packaging makes these strategies more difficult to implement. To calculate upstream emissions reductions from avoided food production, emissions factors per Calorie from a consumption based inventory for the San Francisco Bay Area' were combined with food energy density values from USDA8. Avoided landfill emissions were estimated using parameters from the EPA WARM model, assuming a typical US landfill scenario for landfill gas management. Collectively the five actions are estimated to reduce food production emissions by 368 metric tons and landfill emissions by 48 metric tons, for a total reduction of 416 metric tons. 4 https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-availability-per-capita-data-system/ 5 Jones and Kammen 2015, "A Consumption-Based Greenhouse Gas Inventory of San Francisco Bay Area Neighborhoods, Cities and Counties: Prioritizing Climate Action for Different Locations," Table A5. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2sn7m83z 6 https://www.refed.com/downloads/ReFED Technical Appendix.pdf 'Jones and Kammen 2015, "A Consumption-Based Greenhouse Gas Inventory of San Francisco Bay Area Neighborhoods, Cities and Counties: Prioritizing Climate Action for Different Locations," Table A5. 8 https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-availability-per-capita-data-system/ Food Waste Reduction Implementation Steps Timeline • Encourage residents to participate in the Eat Smart Waste Less Challenge. This program is run by Washington and Clackamas Counties, and the cities of Gresham and Beaverton. Education • For example educational materials, see City of Beaverton. Trees Analysis for tree planting is aligned with that in Practical Climate Actions for Lake Oswego, but emissions reductions for energy savings from shading of homes are added. The analysis assumes planting of 5000 trees, half of which are fast growing hardwoods and half are fast growing conifers. The tree species chosen should take into consideration trees that will do well in Lake Oswego's predicted future climate, and trees that are fire resistant. This may mean choosing hardwoods instead of conifers. In addition, the analysis assumes that 4000 of the trees are planted on residential property, and placed to shade the home (planted on the south or west side of the home). This shade is estimated to reduce annual energy use by about 280 kWh/home, producing an overall energy related emissions reduction of 202 metric tons. Added to the estimated annual carbon sequestration of 93 metric tons, the total emissions reduction is 295 metric tons. It is unclear that space is available to plant the 5000 trees identified. Because of this concern, and because the emissions reduction from the trees would be small, it is recommended that efforts focus on providing information to help the public with selecting appropriate tree species, rather than a focus on number of trees planted. Tree Implementation Steps Timeline Education • Make information available about tree species that are well suited to the projected future climate, and that are fire resistant. APPENDIX 3: ICLEI TEMPERATE ADAPTATION RECOMMENDATIONS iii Recommended Adaptation Actions from Preliminary Vulnerability Assessment Produced by ICLEI-USA June 10,2019 The City of Lake Oswego is relatively well positioned with regard to direct effects of Climate Change. Predictive models of the future climate can be used to inform the range of future possibilities that can be expected.There is little indication that the area will experience the same kind of extreme temperature and precipitation swings that are expected in other regions of the country, however there is always a risk of those of kind of events occurring. General trends regionally will create conditions of increased wildfire threat and decline in mountain snowpack and streamflow, which is a concern to all Oregonians. Lake Oswego has a high capacity to deal with possible acute impacts that concern life and property. Emergency responders appear well equipped and organized to deal with wildfire and the City has good plans in place for handling possible flooding from high intensity precipitation events. After reviewing with city staff the projections of the 21 temperature and precipitation metrics contained in the Temperate software application and assessing the possible impacts to Lake Oswego,various aspects of the quality of life and preservation of the character of Lake Oswego were consistently identified as highly important and potentially threatened by the changing climate.These include changes to the health and diversity of the forest in and around the community and water quality within the lake. One aspect of quality of life for the community that is impacted by acute events is decreased air quality when regional wildfire activity is high. As this impact is of immediate concern, it is recommended that the City of Lake Oswego develop a systematic response to wildfire smoke events. Beyond that, it is recommended that Lake Oswego take steps to ensure the long term integrity of the natural assets of the community as they slowly adapt to anticipated changes in average temperature and moisture. The following suggested actions are highlighted as general strategies that the City of Lake Oswego could pursue to advance climate adaptation through largely existing mechanisms and without significant funding. Some of the elements such as a Wildfire Smoke Response Plan and demonstrating homeowners voluntarily acting to reduce their own risks can help support requests for external funding for larger capital intensive resilience projects. Develop a Wildfire Smoke Response Plan While the City of Lake Oswego has had a good response to recent smoke events,greater preparation can help to minimize disruption to activities in the community in future events while ensuring the health of populations most sensitive to dangerous air quality levels. A smoke response plan should at a minimum establish procedures the city will take in the case of extreme and long duration smoke incidents in terms of basic communications and policies for changes to municipal operations that minimize exposure of workers and residents during events. In addition, a plan should anticipate how the city can help residents be more prepared to protect themselves at home and to assist those without the capacity to escape smoke. The State of Oregon through Executive Order 19-01, has established the Governor's Council on Wildfire Response'.This initiative specifically calls out the importance of wildfire smoke and may lead to more coordinated State efforts as well as funding opportunities to support future initiatives. It is recommended that the City monitor developments with the newly formed Council for opportunities to support these efforts. Phase I The development of a comprehensive plan will likely require some preliminary steps to identify resources and create some momentum to execute elements of the plan. Action Sub-task Resources Work to identify Communicate with social service sensitive agencies, elder care facilities, child care populations facilities, and schools to determine the level of exposure that sensitive populations may have due to lack of access to smoke-free environments. Evaluate City Determine which public facilities may be • CDC -The Use of Cooling Facilities' best suited to provide shelter from Centers to Prevent Heat_ suitability for smoke exposure. Related Illness "clean air" While few examples of this specific idea • Wildfire Smoke—A Guide shelters exist,the concept is very similar to for Public Health Officials cooling centers intended to protect from (EPA)—Appendix D extreme heat. Develop Collect relevant fact sheets and other • Clean Air at Home Education and information to inform residents on best • Public Health FAQ outreach practices to take in the home. • General Risk materials Communication tools • Be Ready Infographic • Example: San Francisco Climate and Health Program Obtain CDC recommend N95 respirators to • CDC Respirator Fact Sheet appropriate protect from the worst aspects of personal particulate matter inhalation. An protection adequate supply of respirators for devices for critical staff as well as for the general distribution if public should be ready. N95 rated needed respirators come in a variety of styles and many disposable options are reasonably priced ($1-2 each). Establish The City may need assistance from Connections with community groups to amplify messages and reach all communities. Review 1 https://www.oregon.gov/gov/Documents/executive orders/eo 19-01.pdf community connections with groups like groups neighborhood associations and other civic organizations in order to leverage their ability to distribute key information. Phase II The following actions are focused on the development of the plan itself. Action Sub-task Resources Determine City Examples include: • School Activities Guidance Response Actions • Types of messaging • Wildfire Smoke—A Guide • Municipal Staffing for Public Health Officials • Events Cancellation (EPA) • Open Clean Air Shelters • Recommend Evacuation of Sensitive Populations • Municipal Staff Training Determine Utilize guidance material from the State • Oregon Wildfire Response Decision Criteria of Oregon for Response Actions as well Protocol for Severe Smoke as priorities identified by partner Episodes agencies to determine clear criteria that trigger different response actions. Determine In addition to existing channels Communications • Dedicated social media Channels accounts • Amplification across social media accounts • Email chains and direct outreach to community institutions Establish Examples Include: • Forest Service Wildland Fire mechanisms to • Staff training Air Quality Response implement the • Communication and Program plan coordination with agencies and other partners • Review the plan periodically. Educate Residents and Businesses to Reduce Wildfire Risk Risk of wildfire destroying property can be substantially reduced by voluntary steps taken by homeowners and business owners. The National Fire Prevention Association sponsors a comprehensive program for neighborhoods and other groups of structures to become "Firewise USA" designation. By going through a documented and well regarded program,the City may be more competitive in additional funding for other types of fire risk reduction. In addition, homeowners may be able to receive discounts on insurance through participation. Action Sub-task Resources Educate residents • Use existing community • NFPA—Firewise USA on steps they can outreach channels • Insurance Institute for take to reduce • Seek neighborhood Business and Home Safety risk to structures associations or other • FEMA Checklist for they own homeowner groups interested Homeowners in pursuing Firewise-USA designation • Take advantage of and distribute available resources from that program Maintaining Tree Cover While extreme weather events may not be strongly predicted by climate models, the slow change in the overall climate will have an impact on the character of Lake Oswego and the surrounding country side. One approach used by some researchers is to illustrate a city's "climate twin"which is the place that today most closely matches the average future climate of a community. Using this approach, one way to think about the future climate conditions for Lake Oswego will be to examine the conditions currently experienced in the northern central valley of California. What will climate feel like in 60 years? ® Map eland NNW r4 Z 9 Learn more — �,t s, , 17 Billings rl s a o• t.°.t • $ Su rt#his project mike ® Y` /` A'.'lu ..� PPu Pmde 8. Y '�/� yt Till % �. .y ti .__- :_ Select city•r click map ,y =;j 4 4 F ` l6,... -A} J ... t :r ,-rrE� 4- a a�R' �'I / i Select a map type A� 92a7ryi •Line m the mmtsimilar dimate f _ ; • 'p -- WY�(IN •Line&donate similarity map 1 i Select an emissions level LAI, i �. i ,•, O Current highemissians 4.1 : ii •What if we reduce emissions? i , itSalt Lake.��a Pk,�.. Select level of detail - ss,,, iA _ \ I ' •Average of27 forecasts t l..'2n° i / ' / 1 - IJTAH = w O Average&27indfviduaI forecast, rr wh 398 k , I . i enta 7: 1 +' �N f. ' , pnrOmpohare Pk. Xle`,. ..taro- , ./ 436Im --' U niversiity v1Mary`land rtad 34j ,; , k �r�kr�s m, a". OaWM. IOSe• h%r _ I:i,, w, • Figure 1 UMD Center for Environmental Science-https://fitzlab.shinyapps.i%ityapp After reviewing the ranges'of'preferred' species, several of them have ranges that are on the extreme edge of survival in the area of future climate or are far outside of their range. While the loss of iconic species native to the area is difficult and measures should be taken to preserve what currently exists; planting guidelines may need to shift in order to avoid investing in trees that will be less likely to thrive. The follow table lists those species which may be in decline over time based on this initial simple review. Consultation with local experts in forest ecology is recommended to look at more specific trends in species distribution and expected changes. common name Scientific Name Range Threat grand fir Abies grandis bigleaf maple Acer macrophyllum red alder Alnus rubra Pacific madrone Arbutus menziesii Western flowering dogwood Cornus nuttallii Oregon ash Fraxinus latifolia 2 https://www.feis-crs.org/feis/ IPonderosa pine Pinus ponderosa black cottonwood Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa quaking aspen Populus tremuloides bitter cherry Prunus emarginata Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii Oregon white oak Quercus garryana cascara Rhamnus purshiana Pacific willow Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra Scouler willow Salix scouleriana Pacific yew Taxus brevifolia Western red cedar Thuja plicata Western hemlock Tsuga heterophylla Action Subtask • Review Planting • Update species lists as needed • USDA Fire Effects Guidelines for those for development, mitigation, Information System that will be well preferred species adapted to future conditions Monitor public trees • Use findings in ongoing through street and adaptive management of trees park tree in Lake Oswego. inventories. Maintaining High Water Quality in Lake Oswego Although not the source of drinking water for the community, maintenance of water quality in the lake of Lake Oswego is a significant concern for quality of life that will be challenged in a warming world. The possibility of harmful algal blooms is increased with increased water temperature and the lake has been near critical thresholds' recently as illustrated by the chart of temperatures below. While the air temperature heating the lake cannot be controlled, one significant source of increased heat to the lake that can be controlled is what enters via storm water runoff. Storm water generated from warm surfaces such as concrete and asphalt will carry that heat into receiving water bodies. If it can be infiltrated into the ground it will be cooled and released slowly into the lake. Summer 2018 weather Daily Pk Temp Range ■Daily Rainfall Month o lake temp 2 100 1.8 99 1.6 d affiD - AA— •. 80 • • • 1.4 0 0 70 e o 1.2 60 R. 0.8 40 0.6 30 0.4 20 0,2 .II 10 0 II_ . June 1.7" July0.0' August September Image from Lake Oswego Lake Corporation' The City of Lake Oswego has good existing ordinances and other initiatives to create more green infrastructure, such as the 2'St Green Street project. However, in order to maintain highest water quality in the lake, any additional opportunities from reducing storm water should be investigated. While based on data from 20095,the following chart illustrates the sub-watersheds that contribute storm water to the lake and the rates of storm water generation within them. Updated data or other means of looking at impervious surface coverage could be used to prioritize those areas with the greatest potential for storm water mitigation. https://cees.iupui.edu/research/algal-toxicology/bloomfactors 4 https://lakecorp.com/news/water-quality/2018-08-02/summer-algae-control.html https://www.ci.oswego.or.us/archive/lois/files/lake inflows 1209.pdf 10-Yr Storm Runoff Rate (cfs / acre) 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 a• ii '). ii ! Ii ' as I ao ce C� o o O ao �r o ce ego ego ��wJ �eco� \��JQ goy` e�O a�e> ee�e� oo L sa 5 The chart above is a simple example of where to look for opportunities for additional protection.The city may need to strengthen efforts to maintain water quality in the lake as the trend towards warmer temperatures continues. Review of development patterns in the city as well as existing regulations and incentives may reveal new opportunities to avoid additional storm water generation as well as mitigate existing sources. Summary In summary,the City of Lake Oswego has good plans in place to respond to the direct impact of natural hazards like flood and wildfire.The region will face challenges to water availability and the City should continue to work with surrounding communities and agencies to manage that resource wisely. In terms of a local response,the biggest things that the city can do is to help educate residents and businesses to reduce fire risk around their properties and how to protect themselves from wildfire smoke, which is likely to be a recurring issue in the region. In addition,the continued care of natural resources that make Lake Oswego a unique community will need to be cared for with a changing climate in mind. With the participation of active community members, Lake Oswego will be able to continue to thrive. This initial scan of vulnerabilities for the City of Lake Oswego was not exhaustive and the it is expected that available data and further connections between a changing climate and issues faced by Lake Oswego and other communities will continue to be demonstrated by scientists working on this issue. Lake Oswego should continue to monitor developments in this space as well as being mindful of key infrastructure and other decisions that should be informed by considering expected future conditions. APPENDIX 4: 2012 COMMUNITY GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY iv LAKE OSWEGO City LAKE Ceo[ennl al 1910-2010 Of .: OSWEGO OREGON COMMUNITY GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY FOR LAKE OSWEGO The carbon footprint of residents, businesses and government inside the City of Lake Oswego days N .•. ,�;r, 40t.,w ,�> 14-Oct,1, ‘. 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".... -- - ...,.. ....- Alt);..4 1 ._.0 ?ow w - --. - - _ — , 1=2k) Inventory and Analysis by Good Company February 2012 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS COMMUNITY GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY FOR LAKE OSWEGO 3 Overview 3 SOURCE-BY-SOURCE SUMMARY OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS 5 Materials, Goods and Food Emissions (Production, Movement and Disposal) 5 Transportation Emissions 6 Energy Emissions (Natural Gas and Electricity) 7 Local Government Emissions 8 Current Emissions and Future Reductions 9 CLIMATE ACTION OPPORTUNITIES 11 Overview of Opportunities 11 Climate Action Opportunities: Transportation 12 Climate Action Opportunities: Materials Flows 13 Climate Action Opportunities: Energy 15 Climate Action in Local Government Operations 16 SUMMARY OF CALCULATION ASSUMPTIONS 17 ,,., t.. -, . l� V'x +E t f� iii„..._..: _.... ., _ is y lot J. P- 1 �'s _L + �+ 1 �= - - Wit, - iii j �4.:;-6--- 7 . ,, ,kiiiv-.4:- -493 1 Jr . .• '�- - �� . 2 COMMUNITY GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY FOR LAKE OSWEGO Overview This report is a consumption-based community greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory and identifies climate opportunities for the City of Lake Oswego, OR. The emissions documented here are associated with consumption by Lake Oswego households and consumers. This GHG inventory was conducted to establish the baseline carbon footprint of the community as a whole in order to discover the highest- leverage areas for change and plan both short- and long-term GHG reductions. The principles of this analysis are to focus on systems of which the City government of Lake Oswego is a steward, to utilize existing capacity and data systems, and to inform high-level prioritization of potential actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The goal has been to provide the fullest and truest view of the community's greenhouse gas emissions. The chart below summarizes, at the highest level, the greenhouse gas emissions from activities of all kinds of the citizens, businesses and local government residing inside the City of Lake Oswego urban service boundary. As explained in detail in the following pages, these emissions are in some cases: Direct— such as gasoline or natural gas combustion, Indirect—from beyond our city and even regional borders (such as electricity imports), Remote — associated with remote activities that end with final consumption here in the community (such as the production of many goods and much of our food). Lake Oswego Greenhouse Gas Emissions (2006) 1.27 Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (Millions of MT CO2e) 29.9 Metric Tons CO2e per Lake Oswego Resident Emissions related to the production, Energy-related emissions manufacture and disposal of (Estimated 0.27 million MT CO2e) materials,goods and food (Estimated 0.59 million MT CO2e) • Natural gas consumption by Energy residents and businesses 22% • Fossil fuel consumption° from • Manufacture of products and food (from inside and outside Materials utilities' imported electricity the region)consumed by Lak 460/o Oswego residents and businesses. • Freight movement of materials, goods and food • Waste management and recycling system (collection, Transportation landfills) 31% Transportation emissions (Estimated 0.39 million MT CO2e) Local Government(operations) Local • Vehicle miles traveled by passenger vehicles (Estimated 0.02 million MT CO2e) and light trucks Government 1.5% • Operation of public transportation system • Public infrastructure projects (TriMet) • Owned fleet and employee commute transportation • Freight traffic inside Lake Oswego • Consumption of electricity and natural gas • Long-distance travel by Lake Oswego citizens 3 Seeking the Full Carbon Picture This inventory estimates the total carbon footprint of citizens, businesses, and local government inside the urban service boundary for Lake Oswego, which includes a population of 42,546 (2006) located within Clackamas, Multnomah and Washington Counties. If you've ever seen a community carbon footprint, these results may surprise you. Most analyses of the Northwest' as a whole and of cities in the region focus on direct emissions from the use of fossil fuels. However, recent EPA research2 suggests that those emissions for which we are indirectly responsible— especially those resulting from the production of material goods—are a large share, and these emissions are ignored by conventional analyses. There are trade-offs in the approach used here. The calculations related to material flows (goods, food and waste) rely on national data with specific adjustments for Lake Oswego based on differences in median household income, rather than direct measurements. Still, the estimate works by providing a sense of scale with a clear message— consumption matters as much as energy and transportation. It is important to stress that these results are estimates, not the final word. This analysis builds on recent work to assemble a new kind of inventory, but it is an evolving process based on the state of the data and our understanding of the results. Traditional inventories have focused on what we could measure well. The goal here is instead to measure where we can — and estimate where we can't—the emissions from all of our activities and consumption in order to get closer to the truth.3 The core methodology of this analysis is based on a 2009 EPA report4 that uses national data from 2006. Therefore, this inventory is also based on 2006 data. A similar consumption-based methodology has been used to estimate the community carbon footprint for the Portland metropolitan area, the Eugene-Springfield metropolitan area, the Rogue Valley including Jackson and Josephine counties, and the City of Beaverton, Oregon. For methodology details, including how the methodology was updated for this particular report, please see the "Summary for Calculation Assumptions" section at the end of this report. There are two major exclusions to this inventory that are not consistent with the methodology: 1. Carbon sequestration by park and street trees located within Lake Oswego's urban service boundary. While these trees sequester and store carbon (while providing many other sustainability benefits to the community), carbon storage is not "consumed" and therefore not included. 2. Emissions from energy used in local production: Emissions from Lake Oswego industrial production are generated on behalf of those consuming the goods and food. While a portion of local production is consumed locally, the majority is consumed outside of the region; therefore, we attempt to include only those emissions attributable to that share of local production that is consumed here. How can YOU help? You can find out how your household or business contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and discover some of the ways you can reduce your carbon footprint. The Oregon Household Carbon Calculators allows individuals to estimate direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions from household transportation, energy use, and consumption of food, goods and services. Additionally, small businesses can access a high- quality carbon calculator created through the CoolClimate Network by checking Lake Oswego's website: http://www.ci.oswego.or.us/plan/Sustainability/Climate Change/ClimateChange.htm 1 For example, see"2008 Seattle Community Greenhouse Gas Inventory,"City of Seattle, (http://www.seattle.gov/climate/docs/2008-community-summary.pdf)or"CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuels by Sector,"Sightline Institute (http://www.sightline.org/maps/charts/Climate-EmBySector). z"Opportunities to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Materials and Land Management Practices," EPA(2009), http://www.epa.gov/oswer/docs/ghg land and materials management.pdf. This analysis is focused on final consumption that happens in residential and commercial contexts. Industrial emissions resulting from the manufacture of goods for export and consumption by other communities do not appear in these numbers, as that inclusion would have produced confusing double-counting. However, there is room for future analysis to provide a complementary set of accounts to look at the carbon footprint of employment and production in Lake Oswego. 4 See source under footnote#2. 5 http://www.deq.state.or.us/programs/sustainability/carboncalculator.htm 4 SOURCE-BY-SOURCE SUMMARY OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS Materials, Goods and Food Emissions (Production, Movement and Disposal) By far, the largest component of Lake Oswego's community GHG emissions (0.59 million MT CO2e, or just over 46% of the total) is estimated to come from the resource extraction, manufacture and distribution of materials, goods and food for final use and consumption by homes and businesses. A small component of these emissions are also associated with the landfill disposal of food and products at the end of their life. These life-cycle stages — generally out of sight and out of mind — are a large and important part of our carbon footprint, and are excluded from most GHG inventories. What exactly does this consumption-related carbon footprint Lake Oswego Cmmunity Greenhouse Gas include? First and foremost, it is products, from clothing, Emissions with Materials Split appliances, furniture and cars to food and beverages— Long-Distance Solid Waste represented in the chart to the right as "Goods" (29%) and Freight_. 0.6% "Food" (9%), respectively. It also includes packaging and 8% many other items that, while often small and largely unnoticed, Food__, are single-use and then quickly relegated to the waste stream. 9% A major aspect of our consumption of materials is the construction, maintenance and gradual using-up of buildings. We often think of the energy our homes use, but over decades we are gradually using up — and renewing — our houses. This background material consumption is also captured in "Goods". The second component of these emissions is the movement of Goods_. 29% goods and food from remote production sites to Lake Oswego, quantified here as long-distance freight (8%). This long- distance movement of materials often looms large in our Locai perception, but depending on the item, may in fact be a Government smaller slice of the item's overall carbon footprint. For 1.5% example, long-haul freight-related emissions contribute only one-eighth of the total emissions related to the provision of food and slightly more than one-sixth of the total emissions related to the provision of goods. Most food and goods-related emissions result from agriculture, food processing and goods production. The small solid waste slice represents the third emissions component related to consumption, the emissions associated with the "end-of-life" carbon footprint of goods and foods. While this emissions source is a small share of total emissions, several things should be noted. First, the success of regional waste reduction programs in keeping this slice small should not be discounted. Reuse and recycling that diverts materials from disposal and back into use has significant net carbon reduction impacts compared with use of virgin materials—even when transportation impacts of collection are counted. Second, the management of the more "upstream" portion of material flows offers many potential GHG-reducing opportunities - from promoting new green purchasing strategies for businesses and consumers, to reducing energy use, to supporting the internalization of the lifecycle carbon costs of goods into their price. While the City of Lake Oswego's role in materials management has traditionally focused on recycling and disposal, the relationships the City has developed with households and businesses present many opportunities to lower the community's carbon footprint from the consumption of goods and food. We explore these opportunities in the climate action section below. The aggregate estimate for this section (for all of Materials, Goods and Food) does not attempt to include international trade. Estimates of our "imported carbon footprint" suggest that the consumption slice could in fact be significantly larger, increasing our national carbon footprint by as much as 20%.6 6 See"Embodied Environmental Emissions in U.S. International Trade, 1997-2004,"Christopher L. Weber and H. Scott Matthews (2007). 5 Transportation Emissions Transportation is responsible for about 31% of the Lake Oswego's greenhouse gas emissions (0.39 million MT CO2e). These emissions come mainly from on-road vehicles (commercially and individually owned) and air travel, with small shares from rail, marine, transit, and local freight sources. Transportation activities are clearly an important emissions Lake Oswego Community Greenhouse Gas source, representing nearly a third of total emissions in Lake Emissions with Transportation Split Oswego and just over a quarter nationally, but these activities are diverse. Truly local sources, such as on-road vehicles and transit, referred to as "Local Passenger Transport", "Local EnergFreight", and "Transit" in the graph at right, total about 17% of 22%y g g 22%0 total emissions. Transit refers to Lake Oswego's share of Metro TriMet commuter rail and buses. It is important to note Materials Local 46/° Passenger that some of the transportation on which we rely is long- Transport distance transportation of goods from far beyond the 15% community's borders; in this analysis, the emissions from long-distance freight movement of these goods is included in ---_Transit <0.01°i° emissions associated with material consumption, and not Loca within this section of emissions. Only local freight movement Government] ..other ° Passenger is included here. 1.5 Local Freight Transport 2% 14% The 14% share labeled "Other Passenger Transportation" consists primarily of air travel, inter-city rail, inter-city bus and car and light trucks making long-distance trips. Within this slice there is a small component that relates to recreational vehicle use as well. ' As air travel is correlated with median household income, Lake Oswego's emissions from air travel are higher than other less affluent communities. State Mandates and Metro Area Goals One impetus for this analysis is the State's passage of SB 1059, Oregon's Statewide Transportation Strategy to reduce GHGs from the transportation sector. This regulation indicates that the Portland Metro area will be the first metropolitan planning organization (MPO) to regulate GHG emissions from local passenger transport. The per capita light vehicle GHG reduction goals are listed for the state by MPO in the graphic to the 2035 GHG targets right. The segment labeled "Local for Oregon metropolitan areas Passenger Transport" in the pie chart per capita light vehicle GHG emissions reduction above is the share of Lake Oswego-area Metropolitan area Adopted target' emissions covered by this goal. There • o Portland Metro2 20% has been no decision yet on how this Metro-wide goal will be regulated at the ofegon Salem-Keizer 17% level of the individual communities that Corvallis 21% make up the Metro region, but a 20% cut011 in Lake Oswego's GHGs from local Eugene Springfield' 20% passenger transport would mean going Bend 18% from 3.91 MT CO2e / person to Rogue Valley 19'Ye approximately 3.13 MT CO2e / person.This translates to a reduction in annual • Adopted by the Land Conservation and Development Commission in May 2011 per capita vehicle miles travelled from ■e5.minuietravelshedextent Required scenario planning and adoption ■ MPO boundary 'Required scenario planning 7,300 to 5,800. This analysis uses national per capita averages from the EPA report previously cited, in the absence of local data or explicit guidance from any widely accepted protocol or methodology. 6 Energy Emissions (Natural Gas and Electricity) Building energy use (for lighting, heating and cooling) and the operation of appliances (by residences, commercial establishments, and industrial buildings) together account for 22% of Lake Oswego's community GHG emissions (0.27 million MT CO2e). Electricity consumption from local government's operations of streetlights and traffic signals is not included in this slice, but is one of the components of the "Local Government" slice of community GHG emissions. Lake Oswego Community Greenhouse Gas The residential sector consumes just more than half of the Emissions with Energy Split community's electricity (53%). The commercial sector and localgovernment consume about 44% and 3% respectively. Building HVAC p y� pandiL6itting Industry consumes less than 1% of Lake Oswego's electricity. Use of For natural gas, more than 80% of total consumption is bythe .Appliances and p Devices residential sector. The commercial sector consumes about 6% 19% and the industrial and government sectors consume less Materials than 1% each. 46% For many long-time residents of the Northwest, it may come as a surprise that electricity consumption is responsible for so Jar- much of the carbon footprint. We have traditionally thought of our electricity as clean and green, coming overwhelmingly from hydropower. Yet as the region's economy and Local.] population have grown, the system of large hydroelectric Gov .Oment 1.5/0 dams has not— and coal and gas have, for the most part, filled the gap. Renewable energy sources are still a small share of the total (2.1%), though growing rapidly.8 There are many efforts to reduce the region's dependency on coal and gas. The electric utility serving Lake Oswego, Portland General Electric (PGE), has made investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency, and a state-mandated Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) will require specific steps in that direction over the coming years. In large part due to public policy and citizen commitment, Oregon has become a leader in renewable energy, including solar and Regional Sources of Electricity wind. In addition to the increase in renewable energy Northwest Power Pool(NWPP) purchase, PGE has invested in energy efficiency improvements via the Energy Trust of Oregon. Renewables_ 2.1% Nuclear The pie chart at left shows the current mix of energy for the 3,6% —\ Northwest Power Pool. For Oregon, the state has mandated Gas goals for large utilities of 15 percent renewable power by 10,6% Coal 2015, 20 percent by 2020, and 25 percent of supply by 2025. Implementation of the standards will result in commensurate 34 7o-a reductions in GHG emissions from Northwest power supplies. Currently, the energy use documented in this section happens almost entirely in buildings, but the distinction between building energy and transportation energy is likely to blur somewhat with the adoption of electric vehicles. While EV technology promises to lower transportation-related emissions substantially, accommodating this new power demand will Hydro require deliberate steps. 49.0% 8 The discussion of the regional electric grid draws on the most recent eGRID data from EPA(http://cfpub.epa.gov/egridweb/), which reflects the electric power industry's structure as of December 31, 2007. 7 Local Government Emissions Emissions from the operations of local government in Lake Oswego accounts for approximately 1.5% of the community's GHG emissions (0.02 million MT CO2e). In 2010, Lake Oswego's city government conducted a Lake Oswego Community Greenhouse Gas Emissions with Government Split comprehensive greenhouse gas inventory of local government operations for calendar year 2008. In this report, it was found that local government (operating on behalf of the citizens and businesses it serves) was responsible for nearly 23,000 MT Energy 22% CO2e of direct and indirect GHG emissions. Direct emissions were from operating its owned fleet vehicles and heating owned buildings using natural gas. Indirect emissions were from M46/ls electricity purchased from Portland General Electric, employee commute, and the embodied emissions in purchased goods _ and services, primarily associated with construction or maintenance of city infrastructure such as roads, public buildings, and waste water treatment systems. These emissions associated with infrastructure accounted for roughly Local Government half of government's impact at --11,000 MT CO2e. 1.5% By showing these local government emissions in the context of the community carbon footprint we see that local government's share of the total is relatively small and is entirely on behalf of the citizens and businesses of Lake Oswego. However, the small stature of the emissions that are directly under local government control does not mean that local government cannot take proactive steps towards community education and development of incentives and policies that can make this community healthier, more prosperous, with a higher quality of life for its citizens while simultaneously cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The Climate Action Opportunities section of this report is primarily written to show the actions that are available to local government to directly reduce and indirectly influence many other components of this community's carbon footprint while achieving a number of co-benefits. II • ® k' .s h, F bI• — Photo: Lake Oswego City Hall 8 Current Emissions and Future Reductions This report is overwhelmingly about the carbon footprint of our daily lives here in Lake Oswego — our transportation habits; our consumption of food and goods; and our use of energy to heat, cool and operate our buildings. One take-away is that this carbon footprint looks a lot like carbon footprints elsewhere in Oregon and in the U.S. This similarity makes sense: our consumption patterns have a lot in common from one place to another in the U.S., and overwhelmingly we're part of the same fossil fuel-based economy. That said, we are not identical, and the analysis highlights both similarities and differences. As can be seen in the graphic below comparing per capita greenhouse gas emissions for various geographies, Lake Oswego's per capita emissions are significantly higher than both the United States average and the average for Portland Metro. This is for one primary reason: Lake Oswego on average is a more affluent community, and greenhouse gas emissions (especially from consumption of goods and air travel) are correlated with income. The US Census Bureau estimated the 2006 median household income for the United States was just over$51,000, while the 2006 median household income for the Portland Metro region was approximately $62,000. For a similar timeframe, Lake Oswego has a median household income of more than $83,000.9 The relationship between income and consumption of goods and air miles flown has been modeled by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley10 and this analysis relied upon this modeling to adjust national consumption and air travel data appropriately. Per capita energy emissions (the blue portion of the bar chart) for both the Portland Metro area and for Lake Oswego are slightly lower than the national average due to the lower carbon intensity of our electricity grid within the Northwest Power Pool. The chart below compares 2006 emissions for the United States, Portland Metro, and Lake Oswego with the GHG emissions goals set by the State of Oregon and the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The state has set a goal of reducing GHG emissions by 75% by 2050 compared to the 1990 baseline, while the more than 4,000 climate science experts from around the globe that comprise the IPCC recommends that in order to keep the amount of warming our planet will face to below 2 degrees Celsius, developed countries will need to reduce GHG emissions by 90% below 1990 levels by 2050. Accounting for projected population changes expected in the state by 2050, 2006 Per Capita Emissions Compared to Oregon's 2050 the green bars at the right show Goal and the IPCC Imperative for Developed Countries where we will need to get to in Government Total Emissions d Materials ■Transportation •Energy terms of per capita emissions by c so mid-century. Clearly, we face a L significant challenge, but it is one 25 that concurrently presents us d with tremendous opportunity to °g 20 increase the health, prosperity, quality of life and resilience of y 15 our communities. The Climate o Action Opportunities section of y 10 this report describes these w opportunities to inform how we 5 might begin to get started. U 0 a U.S. Portland Metro Lake Oswego 2050 Oregon 2050 IPCC Goal Imperative (75% below (90%below 1990 Emissions) 1990 emissions) 9 Lake Oswego Population Baseline Analysis Report, August 19, 2010, produced by FCS Group. 10 See the CoolClimate Household Carbon Footprint calculator developed the University of California at Berkeley: http://coolclimate.berkelev.edu/carboncalculator. 9 A Note on Climate Change Adaptation While the focus of this report is on GHG emissions and opportunities for mitigation —that is taking steps to reduce the gases going into the atmosphere that are causing global warming — it is also important to recognize that the scientists believe our state is already being impacted by physical changes in temperatures and precipitation patterns due to climate change, and more changes are coming in the future. While specific strategies to help Lake Oswego adapt to a changing climate are not called out on the following pages, it is acknowledged here that this work will be highly important in order to mitigate risks and develop resilient communities. Recent studies (Oregon Climate Assessment Report developed by the Oregon Climate Change Research Institute and the Oregon Climate Change Adaptation Framework developed by Department of Land Conservation and Development) for the state of Oregon say there is a greater than 90% chance that in coming decades, our state will face increases in average annual air temperatures and the likelihood of extreme heat events. Additionally, changes in hydrology and water supply are likely to occur, including reduced snowpack and water availability in some basins; changes in water quality; and timing of water availability. To prepare for these changes, here is a brief list of recommended actions for Lake Oswego to undertake: • Apply the insights from the Oregon Climate Assessment Report" and the Oregon Climate Change Adaptation Framework12 to understand the scientists' expected changes for our state and potential low and no-cost first steps in preparing for these changes. • Consider physical climate risks as potential natural hazards. With this in mind, implement the mission of the 2010 Natural Hazard Mitigation PIan13, which is: "To promote sound public policy designed to protect citizens, critical facilities, infrastructure, private property, and the environment from natural hazards. This can be achieved by increasing so* public awareness, documenting r 'r;F r:�� the resources for risk reduction yam': " F • rJ:� and loss-prevention, and a »v ", identifying activities to guide the ? � ,, � �;� � ��`� � t County towards building a F.,n; • safer, more sustainable ` a "` `ems,,, community." t • i � 1 ,a. • Participate in the newly formed k $: Willamette Valley Resilience Compact14, a coordinated effort y i r between Willamette Valley city c • �1` '� ti '� � ��_ rev , ii Ail gam o—� and county governments to a._< , " manage risks from climate /• A46 h , change. �� ,. � .z�� • Num 11 "Oregon Climate Assessment Report", December 2010, developed by Oregon Climate Change Research Institute can be found online at http://occri.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/cover.pdf. 12 Oregon Climate Change Adaptation Framework, December 2010, developed in partnership with the Department of Land Conservation and Development, Oregon Climate Change Research Institute and participating State of Oregon agencies and Oregon University System can be found online at http://www.oregon.gov/LCD/docs/ClimateChange/Framework Final.pdf. 13 Lake Oswego Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan,April 8, 2010, can be found online at: http://www.ci.oswego.or.us/citymgr/Emergency/Documents/LON HMPApri12010.pdf 14 The Resource Innovation Group has provided information about the Willamette Valley Resilience Compact online at http://www.theresourceinnovationgroup.org/wvrc/ 10 CLIMATE ACTION OPPORTUNITIES Overview of Opportunities The purpose of this section is to take the results from the community greenhouse gas inventory above and describe the available options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously making Lake Oswego an even better community to live, work and play. The climate action opportunities identified here will be evaluated as part of the update of the Comprehensive Plan, currently underway. The Comprehensive Planning process has identified a Community Vision for Lake Oswego for 2035: "In 2035, Lake Oswego is a thriving, sustainable city, meeting the community's needs without compromising the needs of future generations. Our community is recognized for its quality of life, exceptional schools, and excellent local government. Our multigenerational neighborhoods, healthy natural resources, vibrant mixed- use shopping, employment districts, and diverse services and activities are accessible to all." Seeking cost-effective climate action opportunities is a clear way to support the achievement of this community vision over the next twenty-five years. Climate action opportunities are outlined within the following four categories that correspond to the components of the Lake Oswego GHG inventory results: 1. Materials flows (materials, goods and food) 2. Transportation 3. Energy consumption 4. Local government operations Community greenhouse gas pollution comes from a variety of sources including residences, businesses and local government. The point of control over these emissions is inherently highly diffuse. There are opportunities to reduce GHG emissions at various scales that will require engagement and investment by residents and businesses. The main purpose of this report is to describe what actions city government can take to educate its citizens, promote reduction strategies, and provide incentives while removing barriers to help Lake Oswego achieve the type of future it wants. As can be seen in the graphic at right, developed by Portland Metro15, taking a leadership role in reducing GHG emissions is just one component in making Lake Oswego a great place. The benefits of fighting climate change are numerous and include things like cleaning our air (reductions in GHG generating activities often simultaneously reduce local air pollution), which makes our community healthier; creating transportation choices, which makes us more resilient; and developing economic prosperity and vibrant communities for all. Additionally, by taking action now to identify the available GHG reduction Vibrant communities opportunities ahead of specific regulations from the state or region allows Regional Lake Oswego the flexibility to choose which actions will have the most Equity climate change benefits and which will be most appropriate to the community's goals and leadership specific context. Makin g place The strategies below draw on a several sources including an EPA report Clean air Transportation detailing opportunities for emissions reductions from materials and land and water choices management practices16, McKinsey's Pathways to a low-carbon economy" Economic and Metro's modeling for the Climate Smart Communities Scenarios effort. prosperity 16 Climate Smart Communities Scenarios Project, Phase 1 report, "Understanding our Lane Use and Transportation Choices", January 2012: http://rim.oregonmetro.qov/webdrawer/rec/231744/view/Planning%20and%20Development%20- 20Regional%20Tran—g%20Our%20Land%20Use%20and%20Transportation%20Choices%20-%20Phase%201%20Findings%20- %20January%2012,%202012.PDF 16"Opportunities to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Materials and Land Management Practices," EPA(2009), http://www.epa.gov/oswer/docs/qhq land and materials management.pdf. 17 McKinsey, http://www.mckinsey.com/Client Service/Sustainability/Latest thinking/Pathways to a low carbon economy. 11 Climate Action Opportunities: Transportation if Local __Passenger --- Transport 15% While GHG emissions from transportation are not the largest component of the Transit community carbon footprint, state and regional efforts in this area are based on `0.01% legislation and regulation. The state and regional goals related to local passenger '`.other transportation will help ground the recommendations for action at the local level. Local Freight Passenger 2 Transport °' The Oregon legislature recently passed two bills (House Bill 2001 in 2009, and Senate Bill 1059 in 2010)that require the state and metropolitan areas to plan long-term GHG emissions reductions from vehicles as a result of the land use-transportation relationship. These regulations relate directly to the slice of Lake Oswego's community GHG pie titled Local Passenger Transport (15% of total community emissions). The state goals are being implemented at the metropolitan planning organization (MPO) level, and the Portland Metro area is the first MPO that is required to engage in scenario planning, targeted at reductions in per capita transportation emissions by 2035 and by 2050. In 2011, Metro engaged in a process of scenario planning and has developed a list of strategies available to reduce these transportation emissions.ta In 2012, Metro will continue to shape the direction of the scenarios being tested. In 2013 and 2014, Metro plans to adopt a preferred strategy and begin implementation. There is currently no specific plan to regulate each jurisdiction within the Metro boundary, so by taking proactive action now, Lake Oswego can assist Metro in reaching its goals while doing so in a way that best meets the needs and vision of the Lake Oswego community. The City of Lake Oswego is currently updating both its Comprehensive Plan (governing land use) and Transportation System Plan. The policies and actions on the table in the Climate Smart Communities Scenarios can inform those discussions, regarding both emerging regulatory obligations and possible paths to achieving community goals. Scale of potential improvement: 70-82% reductions in Local Passenger Transportation, 10.5-12.3% of total. (This range comes from Metro's modeling efforts in support of the Climate Smart Communities Scenarios.) GHG Reduction Opportunities for Transportation Oregon Department of Transportation and Metro have developed a detailed quantitative model of the determinants of GHG emissions from transportation. Metro's Climate Smart Communities Strategies summarizes the results of this modeling effort for the Metro region. While a detailed review is beyond the scope of this document, the discussion below summarizes the six policy areas (two closely related areas, Fleet and Technology, have been combined). The scenarios comprise different combinations of the many possible strategies inside the policy areas, therefore resulting in different levels GHG reduction in 2035 and beyond. Roads: Freeway and arterial capacity;traffic management strategies (such as signal synchronization). Pricing: Gas tax, road user fee, pay-as-you-drive insurance, carbon tax. Marketing and Incentives: Individualized marketing, employer commute programs; car-sharing. Fleet and Technology: Fleet mix (cars vs. light trucks/SUVs); electric vehicle and hybrid market share. Community Design: Complete neighborhoods and mixed-use areas; bicycle travel; parking. The many individual tactics range from "hard" measures, such as new infrastructure or vehicles, to "soft" ones that require education, participation and buy-in of the public, often as private individuals or businesses. In almost all cases, there is some role for the public sector to encourage, inform, facilitate or require action. (Note on air travel: There are no major action items at the local or state level to address air travel emissions, but they are a significant share of the total for Lake Oswego (14%). There will likely be "automatic" progress in reducing those emissions over time through aircraft and engine efficiency improvements, as well as shifts toward low-carbon biofuels.) 18 Climate Smart Communities Scenarios Project: Understanding our Land Use and Transportation Choices, Portland Metro, January 12, 2012 can be found online at http://ri m.oregon metro.gov/we bdrawer/rec/231744/view/Planning%20and%20Development%20- %20Region a l%20Tra n—g%200 u r%20 La nd%20 Use%20a nd%20Tra nspo rtati on%20Cho ices%20-%20 P h ase%201%20Fi n d i ngs%20- %20January%2012,%202012.PDF 12 Long Dtanee Sod Waste Frreight. ©-�� Climate Action Opportunities: Materials Flows 11 8% I Food_. 9% There are many action opportunities in better managing our flows of materials—and many actions that save money and improve our lives. The following categories capture many things that the City can do. Many of the items, however, require community buy-in or even proactive involvement, such as actions taken by industry, households and businesses. Goods,. 29% The GHG reduction opportunities below are focused on materials management in buildings and infrastructure, food, consumption patterns and habits, and education and outreach. GHG Reduction Opportunities for Materials Management in Buildings and Infrastructure In construction of residential and commercial buildings, local infrastructure projects and on-going repair and renovation of the built environment, the community is responsible for the consumption of large volumes of materials, year after year. While this is a significant part of Lake Oswego's carbon footprint, there are many technology and materials substitution options that can reduce these emissions, often while saving money. • Material Selection: Promote sustainable construction practices using different materials in construction, such as materials with recycled content, rapidly renewable materials, or materials extracted, processed or manufactured regionally. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) criteria for new construction has definitions and guidelines for using these kinds of materials in construction.19 • End-of-Life Efficiencies: Promoting material reuse of high-value items, and deconstruction instead of demolition can be an effective strategy at reducing GHG emissions from producing new, virgin materials. Local government can ensure city code encourages deconstruction as a viable strategy for material reuse. Oregon DEQ estimates that original and replacement materials production accounts for roughly between 15- 22% of the GHG emissions associated with a home over its lifetime20. This percentage will grow as we achieve increases in energy efficiencies of our buildings. • Multi-family Dwellings: Encouraging mixed-use development that includes multi-family dwellings can decrease material consumption as this type of construction uses fewer materials than detached dwellings due to shared walls and other efficiencies. • Emerging pavement technologies: New technologies for paving can make a significant impact on cities that are in charge of road maintenance and preservation.21 GHG Reduction Opportunities Related to Food We all have an important carbon footprint in agriculture, even if we never set foot on a farm. Diet changes, especially reduced consumption of animal products, can lessen this impact substantially.22 As a society, we also waste a great deal of food, providing another source of efficiency. Sending organic materials such as food to the landfill can generate methane, a potent greenhouse gas, so looking at alternatives to landfilling organic materials is another opportunity. Strategies for Lake Oswego to address these emissions include: • Promote lower consumption of carbon-intensive foods: similar to the Portland and Multnomah County Climate Action Plan,23 the City can provide public education about making low-carbon dietary choices to reduce consumption of red meat and dairy products, as well as products transported long-distances by air. • Choose low-carbon foods for city food purchases: The city purchases food for various community events and could incorporate guidelines for low-carbon food choices into its procurement program. 19 LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations: http://www.usgbc.orq/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentlD=1095. 20 Oregon DEQ, Phase 2 Report, September 2010, "A Life Cycle Approach to Prioritizing Methods of Preventing Waste from the Residential Construction Sector in the State of Oregon": http://www.deq.state.or.us/lq/pubs/docs/sw/ResidentialBldgLCA.pdf 21 Warm-mix asphalt concrete(WMAC)can provide many sustainability benefits including decreased energy and GHG emissions from production at lower temperatures, increased ability to use recycled materials, the same or better compaction, less smoke during placement, and enhanced pavement life. The GHG savings come primarily from the fact that WMAC is mixed at temperatures 50-100 degrees Fahrenheit cooler than conventional hot-mix asphalt concrete. In 2009, City of Eugene developed a WMAC pilot program and due to the success of the pilot, in 2010 they made WMAC the standard for street paving. In many cases, Eugene found this product can be less expensive due to lower energy costs. 22 Weber, Christopher L. and H. Scott Matthews. "Food-Miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States." Environmental Science and Technology,April 16, 2008, p. 3513. 23 City of Portland and Multnomah County Climate Action Plan, 2009: http://www.portlandonline.com/bps/index.cfm?a=268612&c=49989 13 • Encourage food donation: The City of Lake Oswego can promote participation in Metro's Fork it Over! food donation program to reduce both hunger and food waste throughout the community. • Compost, not landfill: Encourage food waste recycling through composting. Lake Oswego commercial garbage customers are able to participate in Allied Waste's commercial organics collection program. Encouraging both food donation and composting opportunities will help Lake Oswego meet its waste reduction and recycling recovery rate goals set by Portland Metro. • Support local farmers: Residents and businesses can support the local economy by purchasing food from local farmers. Buying locally grown products also helps preserve the agricultural land base and can reduce GHG emissions from transporting food. The City can promote opportunities to learn about or participate in local farmers' markets, Community Supported Agriculture programs, or online market development tools such as FoodHub24. • Encourage backyard gardening: The city can promote programs to give citizens the skills to grow their own food, and the knowledge to make healthy consumption choices. Scale of potential improvement from diet change (reduction in meat and dairy consumption): 54-77% of Food, 4.7-6.7% of total. (This range comes from modeling different diet choices using the CoolClimate Household Carbon Footprint Calculator developed by University of California, Berkeley.25) GHG Reduction Opportunities for Waste Management and Waste Reduction The largest component of community emissions is related to consumption of goods and food, but there are many strategies for reducing emissions through management—and prevention —of wastes of various kinds. Local government can take action on some of these opportunities, but others need to be implemented community-wide by a variety of groups including industry, business, and households: • Reduce packaging • Reduce use of non-packaging paper products • Increase recycling of construction and demolition debris • Increase recycling rates in City operations and in the community • Increase composting of food scraps to 100% • Emerging technologies for energy recovery from 25% of the waste stream that is currently landfilled • Additional methane capture (25%)at landfills to generate electricity Scale of potential improvement: 10-12% of Materials, 4-5% of total. (This range comes from modeling done by the US EPA, "Opportunities to Reduce GHG Emissions Through Materials and Land Management Practices').26 Opportunities for Education and Outreach about Consumption and Carbon Footprints The City of Lake Oswego and local organizations have an opportunity to inform citizens and businesses about the impacts of what they buy and use. The City can connect consumers to information and business resources for making change, including many programs offered by independent sources and other jurisdictions. A few examples: • Educate about and plan for zero waste events—the Farmers Market doesn't allow vendors to sell bottled water and vendors are able to compost pre-consumer food items. • Promote electronics reuse and recycling through Oregon E-Cycles, a state recycling program for computers, monitors and TVs. • Connect citizens and households to resources such as Metro's Sustainable Living web site,27 a gateway to many resources. • Encourage local businesses to implement waste reduction strategies and get recognition for their efforts through the Clackamas County Business Recycling Awards Group (BRAG).28 24 FoodHub, developed by Ecotrust, is a free online tool to link local growers with commercial food buyers: http://food-hub.org/ 25 CoolClimate Household Carbon Footprint Calculator developed by University of California, Berkeley is available online at http://coolclimate.berkeley.edu/carboncalculator 26 US EPA, September 2009 available online at http://www.epa.gov/oswer/docs/ghg land and materials management.pdf 27 Sustainable Living at Metro's web site: http://www.oregonmetro.gov/sustainablelivinq. 28 Information for the Clackamas County Business Recycling Awards Group(BRAG)is available at http://www.clackamas.us/transportation/recycling/preventioncom.isp 14 Building IfVAC and Lighting Climate Action Opportunities: Energy Use of Appliances and °s es Reducing and transforming energy use in homes and businesses presents a Materidlr wide range of opportunities and challenges. While we have abundant 45` hydropower in the Northwest, we still rely on coal and natural gas for nearly half of our electricity, and natural gas use is important in many residential, commercial and industrial settings. Fortunately, a shift toward a more efficient and lower-carbon energy economy presents many cost-saving opportunities that could reduce expenditures on fossil fuels—money that leaves the community— Government and improve regional energy security. 1.5% GHG Reduction Opportunities for Energy • Energy efficiency inside buildings: Recent years have brought improvements in the energy performance of virtually every building system, from windows and insulation to lighting and appliances. These savings are greatest when incorporated into new construction, but they also offer significant opportunities in existing buildings through replacements and retrofits with new technologies. The opportunity, however, will require continual effort and even new business models for reaching homeowners, like Clean Energy Works Oregon.29 • Electricity from renewable sources—by utilities and in the community: Our state's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS)will require 25% of our electricity to come from renewable sources by 2025. Participation in PGE's Clean Wind program can accelerate this process through voluntary purchases by homes and businesses; already, 9.4% of electricity purchased by the community30 and 17% by local government comes from Clean Wind, leading to EPA's recognition of Lake Oswego as a Green Power Community. And there are additional opportunities to support the utilities' investments by further transforming residential and commercial buildings with on-site generation. The City engages in outreach for solar through the Solarize West Linn-Lake Oswego program.31 • Local code changes and green building incentives: The building code in Oregon is issued and updated by the state, while land use codes are local regulations. However, cities have room to incentivize green building practices through zoning, preferential permitting, the allocation of incentives and assistance involving transit access and parking. • Multi-family Dwellings: A shift toward higher density, mixed-use development is associated with reductions in transportation emissions but it also delivers GHG benefits from energy savings through inherent efficiencies such as shared walls, and decreasing heating and cooling loads.32 Also, units in apartment and condominium complexes tend to be smaller, decreasing square footage per occupant and leading to further energy use reductions.33 Scale of potential improvement from renewable sources of electricity:45-55% of Energy, 10-12% of total. (This report did not quantify potential savings from transformation of the building stock, but many estimates suggest energy savings of 50-75% over the next few decades.) As noted in the final bullet above, energy efficiency in buildings provides an important link between the slices of the carbon pie labeled Energy and Transportation: the land use strategies that Oregon communities are currently considering in order to reduce transportation emissions can also change the building stock. A powerful local climate action strategy, therefore, is shifting future growth away from detached single-family housing toward multi-family housing. Considering the entire life cycle, a condominium or apartment unit can reduce GHG emissions by 15-45% compared to a detached single-family dwelling. Notably, these savings are on the same rough scale as the planned savings from transportation. 29 For more information: http://www.cleanenergyworksoregon.org/. 30 Lake Oswego is listed here: http://www.epa.gov/greenpower/communities/index.htm. 31 http://www.solarizewllo.orq/. 32Urban Land Institute, 2003, "The Case for Multi-Family Housing": http://www.u li.org/ResearchAnd Publications/Reports/--/media/Documents/ResearchAndPu blications/Reports/Affordable%20Housing /MulitfamilyHousing.ashx. Given that the baseline population scenario for Lake Oswego includes a significant increase in the share of the population over the age of 65(rising from 14%to 24% by year 2035), this may be a reasonable local strategy. 33 A Life Cycle Approach to Prioritizing Methods of Preventing Waste from the Residential Construction Sector in the State of Oregon, Phase 2, Version 1.4, September 2010, http://www.deq.state.or.us/Iq/sw/wasteprevention/greenbuilding.htm. 15 Ir..1r- Climate Action in Local Government Operations Local government's share of emissions is small. Without a doubt, the City's most important impacts will result from shaping, influencing and informing the community on things like Tran,lx1rin1 31% infrastructure decisions, transportation and land use planning, and code changes. But educating and informing go farther when one seeks to model the right behaviors. The er m'Goem actions and goal-setting reviewed here—only a brief and partial picture—are important for 1 5% demonstrating how the City has set an example. Lake Oswego's city government has taken a number of important actions related to GHG management, including: • 2005: Mayor Hammerstad signed the voluntary US Mayor's Climate Protection Agreement. City Council reaffirmed the commitment in 2009 (Resolution 09-09). • 2007: Development of a sustainability plan outlining numerous goals and milestones related to energy and transportation that impact local government GHG emissions. • 2010: Completion of a comprehensive GHG inventory of local Government operations based on 2008 data. • 2012: Conducted this community carbon footprint and climate action opportunities analysis to integrate state, regional, and local plans, goals, and strategies. Recent practices and measures have included: • Purchases of renewable "Clean Wind" electricity from PGE • Many energy efficiency measures, including building energy management software, energy audits, LED traffic signals and outdoor lighting, high-efficiency pumps, heating and cooling equipment upgrades • Hybrid vehicles purchases and electric vehicle charging station infrastructure development, diesel engine retrofits and biofuels for the City fleet • Transit support for City employees Past Goals for Carbon, Energy and Other Actions City of Lake Oswego GHG Emissions, CY 2008 The City's 2007 Sustainability Plan laid out ambitious by scope in MT CO2e goals (described below). It is important to revisit these ■scope) ■scopell ■scopel�l goals as we look ahead and consider setting new ones. 10983.2 Data management goals Regular updates to local government operations 9414.3 • GHG inventory, tracking of progress Track citywide energy use by facility and scope I: S scope Ili: • <7%of total 41 tal 53%of total department on a yearly basis • Conduct employee commute survey every two years • Determine city's progress towards 2012 and 2027 goals in 2007 Sustainability Plan • Regularly update goals based on progress and state/regional initiatives 441.$ 1007A 987.7 44.5 Goals and targets in 2007 Sustainability Plan, to be IIIIIIIIIIII■ achieved by 2012 Natural Gas Fleet Fuel Electricity Employee Solid Supply • Reduce GHG emissions 7% below 2000 levels Commute Waste Chain (US Mayors' Climate Agreement) • 50% of fleet fueled by alternative fuels/technology • Increase City fleet fuel economy by 10% • New construction and major remodels of City-owned facilities obtain LEED Gold certification or equivalent • Increase by 50% employee alternative commute trips • Decrease overall energy consumption by 10% from 2006 levels (Energy Star challenge) • 100% of energy used is from renewable sources (on-site and from electric utility) Goals and targets in 2007 Sustainability plan, to be achieved by 2027: • Zero net increase of carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) (climate neutral) • Energy sources are 100% renewable 16 SUMMARY OF CALCULATION ASSUMPTIONS Energy • Natural gas data from NW Natural were based on city limits. Data were scaled up by the ratio of the city limits population and the population of the urban service boundary to match the boundary of the rest of the inventory. Local government natural gas consumption was subtracted from the"Energy"slice and added to the"Government"slice. • Portland General Electric provided total kWh of electricity consumption for Lake Oswego, Lake Grove, and Marylhurst for 2006. It was assumed that these jurisdictions best matched the urban service boundary. Local government electricity consumption was subtracted from the outdoor lighting and commercial sectors of the"Energy"slice and added to the"Government"slice. • The regional split between HVAC/Lighting and Appliances/Devices was assumed to be the same as the national split. • In this report, Industrial energy use only includes the portion of energy used for the operation of industrial buildings, not for the local manufacture of goods and services. The split of industrial energy(separating building operation from product manufacture)comes from EPA(2009). Transportation • Metro provided modeled weekday vehicle miles traveled (VMT)for local passenger transportation in Lake Oswego using the GreenStep model. Per Metro,weekend VMT was assumed to be .94 of average weekday VMT. • A fixed share(15%)of freight transportation emissions associated with goods and food was assumed to take place inside the Lake Oswego urban service boundary. • Emissions were calculated from Trimet data on electricity consumption for the operation of light rail and diesel and biodiesel for the operation of buses. • Air miles were adjusted by household income using the CoolClimate Household Carbon Footprint Calculator model developed by University of California, Berkeley and data from Lake Oswego's Population Baseline Analysis showing the number of households in 2006 in various income brackets. Materials, Goods and Food (Production, Movement and Disposal) Per-capita emissions from material goods and food for the United States were attributed to Lake Oswego, with a few adjustments. Assumptions: • A certain share (20%)of goods and food production was assumed to take place within the Northwest Power Pool. Emissions from electricity for that share were adjusted by the region's lower carbon intensity(for the electricity component of production). • Consumption of goods was adjusted by household income using the CoolClimate Household Carbon Footprint Calculator model developed by University of California, Berkeley and data from Lake Oswego's Population Baseline Analysis showing the number of households in 2006 in various income brackets. • Following the model developed by UC Berkeley, consumption of food was assumed to have to relationship to changes in household income. • The estimates do not account for international trade due to lack of information on foreign production and supply chains,which would (according to several studies) raise the number, perhaps by as much as 20%. Local Government Operations • Local government emissions comprise three categories: electricity use by government buildings and government maintained outdoor lighting (traffic signals and street lights),transportation from City owned fleet vehicles and employee commute, and City purchases of materials (goods and services)primarily to support infrastructure projects. • Local government electricity and natural gas consumption was removed from data on "commercial"electricity consumption for the community. • National emissions estimates for maintaining infrastructure were replaced with the local results of the supply chain analysis conducted by the City of Lake Oswego in its 2008 local government operations GHG inventory. • Local government emissions data was for 2008, as it was the only year available, despite the rest of the analysis being based on 2006 data. It was assumed that local government emissions did not vary significantly between 2006 and 2008. For additional details on this report, please contact: Susan Millhauser, City of Lake Oswego E-mail: SMillhauser@ci.oswego.or.us Good Company performed this analysis and generated this report,with detailed comments and assistance from City of Lake Oswego staff. www.goodcompany.com 17 APPENDIX 5: CITY STAFF SUSTAINABILITY SURVEY v Q1 Customize Save asj Did you know that the City has a SustainabiLity Plan for Operations? Answe red:155 kipped:1 Yes No 0% 10% 20 6 30% 405 50% 80% 70% s09u ec • 100% ANSWER CHOICES v RESPONSES yr Yes 61.29% OE yr No 35.71% 60 TOTAL 155 Q2 Customize Save asp Do you refer to the goaLs of the Sustainability Plan when making decisions at work? Answered:154 Skipped: 2 Yes No C 13% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 50% 90% 100% ANSWER CHOICES v RESPONSES Yes 22.0 % 34 No 77.92% 120 TOTAL 154 Q3 Customize Save asV Would employee sustainability training (topics on waste minimization, energy efficiency, transportation, etc.) be of interest to you? Answered:156 Skipped: 0 Yes Maybe 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% SO% 90% 100% ANSWER CHOICES IF RESPONSES V Yes 3910% 61 No 21.15% 33 v Maybe 39.74% 62 TOTAL 156 Q4 Customize Save asuj Were you given an Employee Sustainability Guide when you were hired? Answered:150 Skipped:6 'es No 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 80% 70% 80% 9040 100% ANSWER CHOICES RESPONSES Yes 8.00% 12 v No 92.00% 13S TOTAL 150 Customize Save asV Did you know that the City is working on a Climate Action Plan? Answered:153 Skipped:3 Yes Na 0% 1(N.13 20% 30% 40% 50% 60 f 70% 3c' 90"% 100% ANSWER CHOICES RESPONSES Yes 32.03% 49 Na 67.97% 104 TOTAL 153 Q6 Customize Save asw Would an online forum for carpooling, buying/selling secondhand products, and asking for help with household tasks be useful to you? Answered:156 Skipped; 0 Yes Maybe 04% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% SO% 90% 100% ANSWER CHOICES v RESPONSES T ▪ Yes 35.26% 55 w No 28.85% 45 w Maybe 35,90% 56 TOTAL 156 Do you feel comfortable and knowledgeable about how to recycle and compost at work? Answered:156 Skipped: 0 Yes r4 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 704%o 50% 00% 100% ANSWER CHOICES RESPONSES w Yes 83,97% 131 ▪ Na 16.03% 25 TOTAL 156 QB Customize Save asv, Do you think that designing healthy and equitabLe workspaces (adequate light, healthy indoor air quality, adaptable to different work and learning styles) is needed in a revised sustainability plan? Answered:154 Skipped; 2 Strongly agree Agree Somewhat agree Neither agree iiiil nor disagree Somewhat disagree Disagree I Strongly disagree 0% 10% 24% 34% 4-0% 50% 60% 70% S0% 00% 100% ANSWER CHOICES RESPONSES Strongly agree 40.26% 62 ▪ Agree 29.22 b 45 : Somewhat agree 14.29% 22 w Neither agree nor disagree 12.34% 19 ▪ Somewhat dicagree 1.30% 2 • Disagree 1.30% 2 Strongly disagree 1.30% 2 TOTAL 154 Q9 Customize Save asp Do you think supporting employee volunteer work should be part of a revised sustainabilityplan? Answered:156 Skipped: 0 Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly 11 disagree 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% CO% 70% 80% 90% 100% ANSWER CHOICES + RESPONSES v N. Strongly agree 19.23% 30 N. Agree 35.90% 56 N. Neither agree nor disagree 33.33% 52 N. Disagree 7.05% 11 N. Strongly disagree 4.49% 7 TOTAL 156 2018 Sustainability Plan Employee Survey SurveyMonkey Q10 What do you think the City can include in a revised sustainability to help decrease single occupancy car commuting during peak commute hours? Answered:77 Skipped: 79 # RESPONSES DATE 1 Promote train/light rail to PDX and Beaverton. 5/2/2019 8:25 AM 2 Better bicycle infrastructure 5/1/2019 9:52 AM 3 Vanpool 5/1/2019 7:13 AM 4 As operations allow,enable employees to flex schedules or work from home(set limits on work 4/30/2019 10:58 AM from home--once per month?) 5 Employee residence map,with times of commute. (I commute from NW Portland, arriving 8:30 am 4/30/2019 9:21 AM and departing about 6:30-7:00 pm,to avoid traffic.) 6 Unsure 4/30/2019 8:22 AM 7 Computerized where do you live,whatever days/times do you work.Try to correlate with others. 4/29/2019 4:51 PM Maybe include other local downtown businesses so there is higher possibility of matches. 8 Bring back the van-pool options,allow more flexible work hours to accommodate carpooling, set 4/29/2019 12:58 PM up car pool forums to connect employees that may be going in the same direction. 9 Incentive based carpooling transit use, bicycling and other forms of alternative transportation. 4/29/2019 12:38 PM There should be incentives for purchasing electric vehicles. 10 Incentives like gift cards,days off,or pay increases. 4/29/2019 12:01 PM 11 The city has recently made free annual bus passes available and many departments offer a 4/29/2019 11:48 AM flexible work schedule. Ensuring that a flexible work schedule is available to all is the only suggestion I have. 12 Bike paths or safer bike routes 4/29/2019 11:34 AM 13 We all seem to work different hours so very hard to carpool. Offer shuttles from other city park-n- 4/29/2019 11:30 AM rides 14 Adaptable and flexible work week schedules with more opportunity for working remotely 4/29/2019 11:10 AM 15 Van pool. Pick up at PW and drive employees to City Hall. 4/29/2019 11:08 AM 16 The TriMet pass has been a huge inspiration in my commuting by bus. 4/29/2019 11:04 AM 17 Opportunities to work from home. 4/29/2019 11:04 AM 18 Pay for mass transit. 4/28/2019 10:13 AM 19 I work in a 24/7 environment-pretty limited options for our department. Perhaps some way to 4/26/2019 4:16 PM match up folks who work similar schedules&live similar areas with carpooling. But in our department, its round the clock, lots of OT and unpredictability and folks that don't(can't afford to) live close to work. 20 Offering Tri-Met passes was definitely a step in the right direction. Extending the offer to non- 4/25/2019 3:55 PM benefitted and on-call employees would be helpful in reducing the#of cars on the road. 21 Shuttle Service 4/25/2019 2:45 PM 22 Providing each employee with a trimet pass is a fantastic idea that has already been implemented. 4/23/2019 1:01 PM I just recently got mine and am now taking the bus to work daily rather than driving. Flexible work hours when possible is another way to deal with avoiding peak drive times when working with employee schedules. 23 n/a 4/22/2019 4:52 PM 1 / 3 2018 Sustainability Plan Employee Survey SurveyMonkey 24 Monetary incentive 4/22/2019 2:12 PM 25 Allow employees to spend one shift per week working from home. 4/22/2019 10:41 AM 26 N/A 4/22/2019 10:25 AM 27 Charge for parking. See Donald Shoup's books and articles for the argument against free parking 4/22/2019 10:13 AM at work. 28 More efficient mass transit 4/22/2019 8:27 AM 29 Provide showers, more substantial bike parking and other facilities to make it easier and more 4/22/2019 8:14 AM practical to bike to work. 30 Possibly shift work shifts by 1/2 hour. 4/22/2019 7:15 AM 31 Nothing 4/22/2019 6:34 AM 32 incentives for car pooling, biking,walking. 4/20/2019 8:20 AM 33 I commend the City for making Trimet stickers available to benefitted employees, however 4/19/2019 5:06 PM unbenefitted employees are more likely to use public transportation (since they are less likely to be able to afford a car)and would benefit even more from Trimet stickers. :) 34 Encourage work from home when able,flexible work hours if it accommodates the work. 4/19/2019 3:04 PM 35 A bike route that can be accessed from outlying cities-A connection from Sellwood bridge . 4/19/2019 3:01 PM 36 Maybe a calendar for ride sharing. For example,the bus commute home is very easy for me, but 4/19/2019 1:01 PM the ride brings me in early. So if someone was driving in at the same time,we could share. 37 Provide a city vehicle to use to run errands,get lunch during the day. Give out ride share vouchers 4/19/2019 11:05 AM if employees need to leave work unexpectedly. 38 Challenges for transit and/or bike commuters with prizes, etc. 4/19/2019 11:03 AM 39 Allow employees to take staff cars home and/or use them to carpool. Provide a vanpool.Work with 4/19/2019 10:08 AM property owners to convert the trolley line along Hwy 43 into a bike/ped path(Rails to Trails). 40 changes to work hours 4/19/2019 10:08 AM 41 employees can include their daily schedule,as well as where they live, on the online forum so 4/19/2019 9:35 AM individuals can organize themselves into carpool groups.The daily schedule would specify when people would be coming into work and when they would be leaving. 42 Support working from home, carpooling ideas,van pool,adjusting work times to accommodate 4/19/2019 9:35 AM working earlier or later,taking the County's lead and closing on Fridays-one less day of commuting(for non-essential employees),credit for purchasing an e-bike or alternative,classes or videos on commuting options. 43 Carpooling options 4/19/2019 9:26 AM 44 A ride share internal website. 4/19/2019 8:22 AM 45 Don't know 4/19/2019 8:18 AM 46 Providing alternative transportation modes free to the employee.The other obstacles are: How to 4/19/2019 8:08 AM help those with an hour or more commute and overcome the need for errands on the way home or just needing to get home without delay. Even in an emergency, instead of feeling trapped at work. 47 Time off perks when riding mass transit or walking or bicycle riding to work 4/19/2019 7:59 AM 48 work with Metro/Trimet to get a Max line to Lake Oswego. 4/19/2019 7:54 AM 49 An incentive plan; carpool van; 2 or more ride share spaces at City Hall 4/19/2019 7:47 AM 50 Allow employees to pick work hours that aren't during peak times; have employees live closer to 4/19/2019 7:47 AM each other 51 Bring back the Van pool! It wouldn't work for my schedule but it was a great program and those 4/19/2019 7:44 AM who used it appreciated it. 52 Leave us drivers alone!Some of us enjoy a latte,some of us enjoy a vacation at the beach,and 4/19/2019 6:21 AM some of us enjoy driving alone. :-) 53 Allowing work from home or flex hours, if job is not a direct public service contact position. 4/18/2019 11:04 PM 2 / 3 2018 Sustainability Plan Employee Survey SurveyMonkey 54 Nothing 4/18/2019 6:04 PM 55 Continue with the free bus passes 4/18/2019 5:22 PM 56 The new universal bus pass is a huge step in the right direction.AND more housing IN Lake 4/18/2019 4:51 PM Oswego that employees might actually be able to afford, rental or purchase. I walked to work when I worked at a library in another Oregon city. I loved it. 57 Nothing for me. 4/18/2019 4:45 PM 58 Flexible hours and regular hours to work from home 4/18/2019 4:22 PM 59 Voluntary online forum where people can pick a region in which they live(Tualatin, SE Portland, 4/18/2019 4:17 PM NE Portland,Vancouver,etc.)and connect with other people in that region to carpool if they mutually agree on time and order of pickup.There are only two concerns: 1)Privacy-there are some people whom I would prefer didn't know my address or phone number who live in adjacent neighborhoods to me.2)Punctuality-Things happen in the morning (especially if you have kids/pets/exercise classes)that can delay someone by a couple of minutes, but then suddenly it's you AND three other people who are late. Maybe briefing department heads/supervisors to look the other way on exact punctuality while carpools are getting underway would be helpful in making people feel comfortable using carpools. Every carpool I've been a part of has been scheduled to arrive at work more than 15 minutes early,which is fine,too, but when you're not a morning person,those 15 minutes of prep time are invaluable! 60 Bus Passes 4/18/2019 4:08 PM 61 People love cars and the freedom of cars, I don't think much will decrease single occupancy car 4/18/2019 4:08 PM commuting. 62 Setup a scheduling program to help coordinator drivers from same areas. 4/18/2019 4:06 PM 63 Healthy transport credits(bike and walk), mass transit credits,and then carpool credits in 4/18/2019 4:03 PM descending order of value. Even if it is in the form of comp time if cash is a tax issue.Since you already got us the bus pass, maybe look into some kind of e-bike subsidy,or a couple of e-bikes for getting employees around town. I also think cutting down available parking would help.As long as it is easy to ride in your car by yourself,you will-make it slightly more difficult. 64 Van pool;flexible work hours 4/18/2019 3:59 PM 65 Higher pay to afford closer housing.While the current pay scales are very generous, local housing 4/18/2019 3:57 PM is still out of reach for most employees. 66 Citywide 9-80 or 4 10s schedule. Reduce the commuting by either 1 or 2 days every two weeks. 4/18/2019 3:57 PM 67 NA 4/18/2019 3:54 PM 68 Two ideas to ponder: 1-if available/feasible, maybe city parks/rec van could be used for carpooling 4/18/2019 3:49 PM during commute times especially during city hall construction. One possible route could be city hall to Barbur or Tualatin transit centers. 2-Maybe city could work out an arrangement with car2go (www.car2go.com)but would be limited to carpooling only.Again feasibility dependent&this may be easier said than done given an expense may be involved. 69 A new max line into the city 4/18/2019 3:49 PM 70 Allowing more employees to work from home, if they are able to. 4/18/2019 3:49 PM 71 There would be a need to better mass transit.This is something outside of the city's ability 4/18/2019 3:48 PM 72 Continue bus pass subsidy,encourage car pooling and off-peak regular work hours, provide more 4/18/2019 3:48 PM bike parking, launch an electric-assist bike sharing program on a trial basis. 73 Alternative schedules,car pools, 4/18/2019 3:45 PM 74 Carpooling and work schedule flexibility. 4/18/2019 3:44 PM 75 Allow work from home 4/18/2019 3:42 PM 76 BUS PASS,WHICH WAS JUST INCLUDED 4/18/2019 3:41 PM 77 A portion of tri met pass for part time and full time reimbursed by the city. 4/18/2019 3:38 PM 3 / 3 Q11 Customize Save as,. if electric vehicle charging was available at your work location, would that influence your decision to purchase an EV? Answered:150 SKipped:6 Yes 0L 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 50% SD% 10 0 ANSWER CHOICES v RESPONSES Yes 37.33% 5C N o 62.67% 94 TOTAL 150 2018 Sustainability Plan Employee Survey SurveyMonkey Q12 Please let us know of any other topics or ideas that you think should be included in our revised sustainability plan! Answered:41 Skipped: 115 # RESPONSES DATE 1 I already own an EV so my answer to#11 is representative of the fact that additional charging 4/30/2019 10:58 AM stations in the area did influence my decision to buy; and adding even more charging stations would hopefully encourage even more EVs! So many wonderful things about having an electric car!!!! I would like to see something in the revised sustainability plan about the City of Lake OSwego taking a leadership role in influencing our partners to be more sustainable--for example, can we send a letter to Office Depot or other such places we order from,to ask that they consider less packaging, bundling orders, using recyclable packaging (i.e.crumpled brown paper instead of styrofoam packing peanuts?)Easier said than done, but we may be in a position to influence positive change.Thank you for considering this. 2 I understood that charging employee electric vehicles would not be allowed. Question 11 makes 4/29/2019 12:58 PM me think this may be possible?A City policy or guide on employees charging at work would be helpful- I do own an all electric vehicle but never charge it at work. 3 It would be good if there was a way of getting people to quit throwing non-recyclable material in 4/29/2019 11:48 AM the recycle bins.Consider sending link to employee sustainability guide to all employees. 4 There should be solar panels on all City facilities 4/29/2019 11:10 AM 5 I'm pretty into the whole waste reduction thing-yuck to plastics, helpful to have viable options 4/26/2019 4:16 PM pointed out to consume less stuff and leave less garbage,and better ways to deal with what we create. 6 Hopefully LO won't cram in any more high-density housing downtown like the Winward. It definitely 4/25/2019 3:55 PM increases the congestion and traffic.Also,with such crazy expensive housing, people have to live further and further out with longer and more high polluting commutes.Try to keep LO housing more affordable so people can afford to live where they work, and have the option to walk or bike to work. 7 With the recent changes to recycling due to China's policies,there has been some confusion 4/23/2019 1:01 PM about which items we can recycle now. It might be a good idea to revisit these items with email and/or brief meetings to clarify any confusion. 8 Some of the questions are a bit misleading....I answered no to#2 not because I wouldn't use 4/23/2019 8:21 AM it....but because I haven't seen it.#4 didn't exist when I was hired.#7 is too absolute,as I know recycle but not compost. Not sure how#8 fits in to this survey and would help to know qualifiers. Thank you for the survey...it is a good tool! 9 n/a 4/22/2019 4:52 PM 10 Going at least more paperless-Getting software for electronic permit review and moving toward 4/22/2019 10:13 AM electronic applications would save a lot of paper.Tablets for review bodies to view applications and materials electronically instead of paper copies would also help. 11 Sustainability should include pre and post consumption. If we are buying products manufactured 4/22/2019 8:27 AM in a country that does not heed to current acceptable practices..then we are not sustaining anything...we are just making ourselves feel better. 12 Please advocate for big moves that would make a big difference,such as better mass transit 4/22/2019 8:14 AM connectivity to downtown LO 13 bulk purchasing and storage,with an emphasis on products that are local, recyclable, have 4/19/2019 3:04 PM recyclable content, and low environmental impact. Encourage employees to follow purchasing procedures. 14 A recycling program at Public Works. 4/19/2019 3:01 PM 1 / 3 2018 Sustainability Plan Employee Survey SurveyMonkey 15 Encouraging involvement in the local governments that people reside in-specifically transit. Some 4/19/2019 1:01 PM of the surrounding cities are not walker friendly,which discourages transit riding.West Linn& Tualatin have crosswalks without street lights so it can be pitch black and crossing a street is dangerous and therefore,discourages riding the bus. I think it would be great if we could report to the public that the"X%"of city staff uses public transit or job sharing. The well publicized water conservation and natural pesticides have been very popular. 16 Noxious odor restrictions,tobacco, perfumes, body odors 4/19/2019 12:00 PM 17 The new addition of the Trimet sticker pass is hugely appreciated!This will absolutely inspire me to 4/19/2019 11:03 AM use transit to get to and from work(I live in NE Portland and work in LO) 18 It sucks that only one shower for non-police staff was included in the new City Hall. Lack of 4/19/2019 10:08 AM facilities discourage bike/ped commuting. 19 How janitors bag up garbage into multiple plastic bags before putting into the dumpster. 4/19/2019 9:38 AM 20 Sustainability shouldn't be something that is only done at work.The City should teach employees 4/19/2019 9:35 AM the tools they can use in their own home or in their neighborhood so that sustainability practices can be shared.Those lessons should also be taught at local parks throughout the spring and summer in different neighborhoods so that different practices can include families and kids. 21 Home composting kits even if we don't live in LO 4/19/2019 9:35 AM 22 I don't think supporting volunteer work during work hours is a good plan, but I can see posting 4/19/2019 8:22 AM opportunities somewhere.Also, I wonder about ride sharing during work hours for those who find themselves going from one building to another. 23 Annual training for each department 4/19/2019 8:08 AM 24 looking into coordinated office supply ordering, rather than every division have deliveries from the 4/19/2019 8:05 AM same company everyday(reduce trip counts, reduce emission, reduce package materials) 25 Weekly emails about sustainability 4/19/2019 7:59 AM 26 disinvestment in petroleum companies; purchasing guidelines 4/19/2019 7:47 AM 27 If the city allows employees to use city electricity to charge vehicles,what additional benefit would 4/19/2019 7:47 AM be provided to employees who can't purchase an electric vehicle? 28 Many people bring their lunches to work...it's super easy to use reusable bags instead of plastic. 4/19/2019 7:15 AM Just a minor tweak that goes a long way. 29 Good Luck! 4/19/2019 6:21 AM 30 None 4/18/2019 6:04 PM 31 Better building access for disabled.Once I'm inside it's ok, by the doors are too heavy and no 4/18/2019 4:22 PM button for door assistance. Department doors are also very heavy and difficult for those with back issues. 32 Incorporating opportunities to volunteer in sustainability efforts with coworkers during work hours 4/18/2019 4:17 PM (a la PGE or Nike).That could mean pulling invasive weeds,doing a litter pickup, picking trash out of the Willamette, etc. I also really like learning opportunities like brown bag lunches in the council chambers where environmentalists,conservationists, marine biologists, etc.come and give lectures about ways we are impacting our surroundings. 33 I am not clear on why employee volunteer work should be a part of the sustainability plan.That 4/18/2019 4:08 PM would seem to fall under an HR benefit. I do like the idea of a city employee classified website to sell and re-purpose second hand items. 34 If employee social wellbeing is part of the plan,then space should be available for mediation or 4/18/2019 4:06 PM other relaxation methods.The employee break room at City Hall is often cold and can be loud which is not suitable for any relaxation methods.The City also needs fix the windows in the break room that leak water and are a mildew hazard.The new City Hall will not be ready to occupy for at least 2-3 years and the substandard conditions are unacceptable. How much energy will be lost in the time it takes to build the new City Hall? 2 / 3 2018 Sustainability Plan Employee Survey SurveyMonkey 35 Commitment of traffic engineers to prioritize mass and active transit when doing redesigns, 4/18/2019 4:03 PM repaints,or rebuilds.40%of GHG is from transportation! Boones Ferry was a HUGE missed opportunity for increasing biking,a dedicated bus lane,or anything remotely resembling a street of the future. Do the people who never bike feel safe and encouraged,with paint as their protection, to ride alongside traffic? Probably not. Paint facilities don't exactly induce demand.Walking facilities are near identical to existing, although wider, but how does that translate to more people walking? Basically,what has this project done except make it easier for single-occupant-vehicles to get to 15?We often cite no space and/or cost for widening roads to include this focused (i.e. not SOV)infrastructure. Portland has just released new design standards for these narrow roads called'advisory shoulders'which give pedestrians/bikes SOME space and greatly calm traffic at the cost of a repaint(see SWIM and Nick Falbo, also the Netherlands). This may not induce great demand(separated infrastructure will), but it at least opens access for the confident,vulnerable road users on these no shoulder, narrow nightmares. Clearly, I am focused on transport, but it seems painfully obvious that our staff and council design and vote for how they get around (in a car, by themselves). This feels like a rant, but I am happy to do anything I can to get us out of cars. -JP(jmiller@lakeoswego.city) 36 Reducing commuting is in my opinion the single most effective way to increase our sustainability. 4/18/2019 3:57 PM Other than mentioned above, I'm not sure how to achieve that since to the south there is not much in the way of transportation alternatives. 37 NA 4/18/2019 3:54 PM 38 Making sure building are safe,free of mold,and on a update routine would help.We have 4/18/2019 3:48 PM buildings currently in our city,such as fire stations and town hall,that are suffering from water damage and other issues. 39 Evaluate the oldest buildings in the city to see how to increase the buildings efficiency. ie. 4/18/2019 3:44 PM Southshore fire station lighting, HVAC,windows and leaks in the walls. 40 Hi.You are neat. 4/18/2019 3:42 PM 41 Stop purchasing electric cars.The manufacturing process and disposal of EV Batteries is way 4/18/2019 3:39 PM more detrimental to the environment 3 / 3