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Macroinvertebrate Assessment 2013 4",, I; .-..', ,, , .' .' 3". / .1: , ; • ''''' ? ' , '''' t..-'6 \Y 4'. ."'wit I,41 ': ,* r " ' ' „,- ,--- ',; • .',' - I ' ;:s-il.Air, 4. / CLACKAMAS COUNTY NPDES MS4 CO-PERMITTEES ,,r., 2013 COORDINATED MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSESSMENT - -4-, -- z..,.. ,,,, , , 7 , ...., %# ,... • Clackamas County, Oregon , ...- . . . . ., . ,;, ,,,,:„„ • ,•,.„,,-., . . `-'•46,, „1 tt,I*11,4,'Ve. ;'A: '.4 .,t 1-: k ' • .", 1- 4'0 ''''4;4 ir- . . ... ,- t. .,_ „ix lic,^-., • ••• wi,a, .40' ,. -. ' .4- - -- _. 4 .-'. ''-',6i:. -'. ' ')..'t. ' - _ -, tett , — , ,., '.e ' •Net`.111'11:,.ilt...".A Nt• 'I.: - ' „17.' k 1 ;, ,, ,..t.. • •..,s-'` '‘ i. ..- FINAL REPORT - - ,... .0., .. 04,, 4.1_,, s ,,,,„• . 4,- ' , - -,,,,, - 047,----i— • ,,,,I,,,,,,--"4.17'. 1P00,:,:t1°,1)"..tfi'dito'r ' 11, ' • ' - '.",'i 'If• '1.4,'-i,..- -Zolliirs. '''' 14k-",... ' .•'',J'•• ' V', , - • . , . Att- '•,,,,t,. .. .,,, . ' '' it%• Irv:_..IP 4.. - ' • ,14 . '... ' se • • is - -- . r..67 , 4.. --- ... si. .. a 4* W h.....ev..., 0.. ..„.... . Prepared for -.1-- .., , .. . . tSy., • City of Gladstone '3 1...-.4ii, •e% 'It 't; . City of Lake Oswego ,.. 1/2.,s0(a..::*,„,„,...,--r. City of Milwaukie .0 i -,sior ,,,, City of Oregon City - . ..*-4., ,,,,... i .., .4 ,,, ,,,,, : _-,t,..: .„1 ` ,.., City of West Linn .7- 1 1 ' . • t %,,,..4,, 4, 1 . / , ..- P7-..,' ...evl.4:- ,. 1.•,•:‘,„ f„..„ ,., City of Wilsonville , - , ,..., . ... ,„ , - - ',..., -, ,„ ,.- b--,41"-„-- ri'" - --- ""••- By : . ie le .5....... -. •••• "*. '..raa";, ' .1,44.10 III _ a• Michael B. Cole, Ph.D. . Cole Ecological, Inc. *IP' February 2014 illipards lk4ailktorta,. ..- . , .- , N . likt•, - -• - 4914 Alikkovra t ,• ,.. _,..."60141111)641111 ,.._ Nr. • v..„ it. 411* , Y - _ - wifr i , ---- irmeit lib. . ,i' ... ' . I - • 4 . , - ' r•6666 I.em..6 5.....• , CLACKAMAS COUNTY NPDES MS4 CO-PERMITTEES 2013 COORDINATED MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSESSMENT FINAL REPORT Prepared for City of Gladstone City of Lake Oswego City of Milwaukie City of Oregon City City of West Linn City of Wilsonville By Michael B. Cole, Ph.D. Cole Ecological, Inc. February 2014 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 2013, six Clackamas County jurisdictions, including the cities of Gladstone, Lake Oswego, Milwaukie, Oregon City, West Linn, and Wilsonville, participated in biological monitoring as required during the 2012-2017 NPDES MS4 permit period. Cole Ecological, Inc. sampled macroinvertebrate communities, stream physical habitat, and water chemistry from seventeen stream reaches across these six jurisdictions in the fall of 2013. The objectives of the study were to assess the current status of chemical, physical, and biological conditions in these waters, and as applicable, determine whether noticeable trends in improvement or decline in biological conditions are occurring. Multimetric Index (MMI) scores and PREDATOR Marine Western Coastal Forest O/E scores indicated biological conditions generally similar to those measured in 2009 across the ten Lake Oswego study reaches. MMI scores ranged among the ten Lake Oswego reaches from 10 to 24, and eight of the ten sites scored lower than 20, corresponding to "severely disturbed" biological conditions. Only the Springbrook Creek restoration reach (MMI score = 20) and the Tryon Creek reach (MMI score = 24) scored outside of the "severely disturbed" range. PREDATOR O/E scores ranged from 0.194 to 0.437, occurring exclusively in the "most disturbed" condition class. The lower Springbrook Creek reach's MMI score of 20 represented the largest difference from 2009 scores, when this reach received the lowest possible MMI score of 10. Tryon Creek notwithstanding, only the Springbrook Creek restoration reach MMI score occurred outside its 2004-2009 range. Temperature stressor (TS) scores indicate that compositional shifts in macroinvertebrate communities have occurred in seven of the ten Lake Oswego stream reaches. Only lower Lost Dog Creek, East Lost Dog Creek, and Nettle Creek appear to support macroinvertebrate communities unaffected by elevated water temperatures. Fine sediment stressor (FSS) scores from all nine Lake Oswego samples collected from riffle habitats (i.e., all reaches other than Carter Creek) indicated likely sediment-induced stress on macroinvertebrate communities in these reaches. MMI scores ranged from 14 to 36 among the seven reaches assessed by the other five co- permittees. Coffee Creek received the highest MMI score of 36, corresponding to a slightly disturbed biological condition. Singer Creek scored a 30, corresponding to slightly/moderately disturbed. Boeckman Creek received an MMI score of 20, indicating moderately/severely disturbed conditions. Minthorn and Tanner creeks both scored in the severely disturbed range. PREDATOR O/E scores ranged from 0.242 to 0.630, exclusively within the "most disturbed" condition class among the seven co-permittee reaches. Rinearson Creek received the lowest MMI and O/E scores among the seven co- permittee reaches; however, riffles were nearly absent from this reach, necessitating sampling macroinvertebrates from sand-dominated glide habitat. As such, condition classes were not assigned to the community scores calculated for this reach. Among the seventeen study reaches, only Rinearson Creek and Lost Dog Creek at Lake Front Road samples failed to support any EPT taxa. Temperature stressor (TS) scores indicate temperature-stress-induced shifts in macroinvertebrate communities have likely occurred in four of the seven co-permittee reaches, including Boeckman, Minthorn, Rinearson, and Cole Ecological, Inc. i Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Trillium creeks. Fine sediment stressor (FSS) scores indicate FS-induced stress in all six reaches from which riffle samples were collected. Generally high embeddedness values across all study reaches corroborate this finding. Recovery of biological communities in these area streams is dependent on identifying and improving stream conditions and functions that are currently impaired. While additional water quality data would further elucidate likely cause-effect relationships, stressor model results, combined with the results of physical habitat assessments, are suggestive of multiple stressors co-occurring in most streams assessed in this study. This phenomenon, known as "urban stream syndrome" or "multiple stress syndrome" is well documented among urban streams (Walsh et al. 2005). Mechanisms driving the syndrome are complex, yet stream hydro-modification from efficient stormwater delivery into receiving waters is largely responsible for the various perturbations observed and measured in this and other studies. Protection of area streams should focus on maximizing riparian buffer protection, minimizing total effective impervious areas, and improving stormwater retention and drainage patterns to minimize the hydrologic effects of storm events on stream channel conditions. As stormwater best management practices and other restoration activities are undertaken, these data will assist with determining the success of these actions relative to their intended benefits to aquatic life. Cole Ecological, Inc. ii Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY II LIST OF TABLES IV LIST OF FIGURES V LIST OF APPENDICES V INTRODUCTION 1 METHODS 1 SAMPLE SITE SELECTION 1 FIELD DATA COLLECTION 4 HABITAT ASSESSMENTS 4 HABITAT UNITS SURVEY 4 CROSS-SECTION SURVEYS 6 RIPARIAN SURVEYS 7 WATER QUALITY SAMPLING 7 MACROINVERTEBRATE SAMPLE COLLECTION 7 SAMPLE SORTING AND MACROINVERTEBRATE IDENTIFICATION 8 DATA ANALYSIS 8 MULTIMETRIC INDEX ANALYSIS 8 PREDATOR MWCF MODEL 10 STRESSOR MODELS 11 RESULTS 12 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS 12 LAKE OSWEGO STREAM REACHES 12 CO-PERMITTEE STREAM REACHES 13 MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY CONDITIONS 15 LAKE OSWEGO STREAM REACHES 15 Cole Ecological, Inc. 111 Clackamas Co. MS4 Macroinvertebrates CO-PERMITTEE STREAM REACHES 18 DISCUSSION 21 RECOMMENDATIONS 24 LITERATURE CITED 25 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. List of 2013 Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee macroinvertebrates sample sites. 2 Table 2. Environmental variables measured in the field for characterizing stream reaches sampled for macroinvertebrates in Clackamas County, fall 2013. 5 Table 3. Multi-metric set and scoring criteria(WQIW 1999) used to assess the condition of macroinvertebrate communities from Clackamas County streams in fall 2013 9 Table 4. Multimetric score ranges for assignment of macroinvertebrate community condition levels (WQIW 1999) 10 Table 5. Environmental conditions measured in Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee stream reaches sampled for macroinvertebrates in fall 2013 13 Table 6. Summary of Multimetric Index (MMI) scores, PREDATOR MWCF model O/E scores, and temperature (TS) and fine sediment(FSS) stressor model scores calculated from macroinvertebrate samples collected from 17 Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee streams in September 2013. Highlighted TS and FSS scores indicate values that exceed DEQ inferred stressor thresholds of 18.2°C and 15% fine sediment. 16 Table 7. Multimetric Index scores and PREDATOR MWCF model O/E scores from stream reaches sampled in and adjacent to the City of Lake Oswego, Oregon, fall 2004, 2007, 2009, and 2013. DEQ score corresponding levels of impairment: <20= severe, 20-29 =moderate, 30-39 = slight, >39 = none. O/E score corresponding levels of impairment: <0.75 =poor/severely impaired, 0.75-0.90=fair/slightly impaired, >0.90= good/unimpaired. 18 Table 8. Macroinvertebrate community metrics calculated from samples collected from Boeckman Creek below Rose Lane, Wilsonville, Oregon in 2003 and again in 2013. 20 Cole Ecological, Inc. iv Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. 2013 Clackamas County NPDES co-permittees macroinvertebrate sample sites. 3 Figure 2. Substrate composition from 17 Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee streams sampled for determining conditions of macroinvertebrate communities in September 2013 14 Figure 3. Multimetric index (MMI) and Marine Western Coastal Forest (MWCF) PREDATOR model scores calculated from 17 macroinvertebrate samples collected from Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee streams in September 2013. 17 Figure 4. Individual community metric values calculated from macroinvertebrate samples collected from 17 Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee streams in September 2013. 19 Figure 5. Distribution of macroinvertebrate community condition classes from 15 Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee streams sampled in Septemver 2013, as determined from multimetric index (MMI) scores. Rinearson and Carter Creeks are not included in these results, as glides were sampled from each of these two reaches, thereby precluding the assignment of condition classes. 22 Figure 6. Relationship between MMI and O/E scores. 23 LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix 1. Environmental conditions measured from 17 Clackamas County NPDES MS4 co-permittee stream reaches, fall 2013 26 Appendix 2. Western Oregon multimetric index individual metric scores calculated from macroinvertebrate communities sampled from 17 Clackamas County NPDES MS4 co-permittee stream reaches in fall 2013. 27 Appendix 3. Google Earth images depicting locations of 2013 Clackamas County NPDES MS4 co-permittees macroinvertebrate sample sites 28 Appendix 4. Reach Assessment Summary Sheets 31 Cole Ecological, Inc. V Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates INTRODUCTION As a condition of the Clackamas County National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) permit, Clackamas County co-permittees have developed a comprehensive NPDES MS4 stormwater monitoring program (Brown and Caldwell 2012). This NPDES stormwater monitoring program includes biological monitoring throughout the Clackamas MS4 permit area that is intended to address the following objectives: • Evaluate status and long-term trends in receiving waters associated with MS4 stormwater discharges; and • Assess the chemical, biological, and physical effects of MS4 stormwater discharges on receiving waters Specifically, the comprehensive monitoring plan states that monitoring activities will attempt to address the following questions (Brown and Caldwell 2012): • What are the biological conditions of receiving waters? • Based on historic macroinvertebrate sampling efforts (as applicable), are there noticeable trends of improvement or impairment in receiving waters? In 2013, six Clackamas County jurisdictions, including the cities of Gladstone, Lake Oswego, Milwaukie, Oregon City, West Linn, and Wilsonville, participated in biological monitoring as required during the 2012-2017 NPDES MS4 permit period. Among these jurisdictions, only the City of Lake Oswego performs regular biological monitoring of their receiving waters, having assessed macroinvertebrate communities in 2004, 2007, and 2009 (Lemke & Cole 2009). The City of Wilsonville last performed a macroinvertebrate assessment in 2003 (Cole 2003). The 2013 assessment represented the first biological assessment by the other jurisdictions of their receiving waters. In the present study, Cole Ecological (CE), Inc. sampled macroinvertebrate communities, stream physical habitat, and water chemistry from seventeen stream reaches across these six jurisdictions in the fall of 2013. As stated above the objectives of the study were to assess the current status of chemical, physical, and biological conditions in these waters, and as applicable, determine whether noticeable trends in improvement or decline in biological conditions are occurring. METHODS SAMPLE SITE SELECTION Sample sites were selected for the cities of Lake Oswego and Wilsonville to correspond with previously assessed locations in order to determine whether trends or Cole Ecological, Inc. 1 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates changes in biological conditions have occurred as compared to prior sampling efforts (Table 1 and Figure 1). Sample sites within the City of Lake Oswego were selected in 2004 and 2007 (Cole & Harris 2004; Lemke & Cole 2007) to provide representative coverage of perennial streams within the city. Six reaches were initially selected and sampled in 2004 (Table 1). In 2007, an additional five reaches were added to the previously surveyed reaches, while the Blue Heron Creek reach was dropped from sampling. These same ten stream reaches were sampled for the City of Lake Oswego in 2009 and 2013. The City of Wilsonville performed a comprehensive biological assessment of eleven reaches in Boeckman Creek, Coffee Lake Creek, and Mill Creek in 2003 (Cole 2004). One reach in Boeckman Creek, presently also used as a water quality monitoring station by the City, was re-assessed in the present study. The cities of Gladstone, Milwaukie, Oregon City, and West Linn have not previously performed macroinvertebrate sampling. Macroinvertebrate sample sites within these jurisdictions were co-located with current water quality and pesticide monitoring sites in order to provide greater opportunity for examining relationships between water quality and biological conditions (Brown and Caldwell 2012). Habitat Past Sample Site Location Jurisdiction Sampled Lat Long Assessments Rinearson Creek Outfall at Risley Rd Gladstone Glide 45.3822 -122.6038 Ball Creek Ball Crk at Kruse Oaks Lake Oswego Riffle 45.4245 -122.7403 04,07,09 Carter Creek Carter Crk at Bangy Lake Oswego Glide 45.4170 -122.7406 07,09 East Br.Lost Dog Creek @ Stafford Rd Lake Oswego Riffle 45.4026 -122.6806 07,09 Lost Dog Creek @ Lake Front Dr Lake Oswego Riffle 45.4006 -122.6891 04,07,09 Nettle Creek at Iron Mtn Blvd Lake Oswego Riffle 45.4246 -122.6814 04,07,09 Oswego Creek downstream of Hwy 43) Lake Oswego Riffle 45.4107 -122.6625 07,09 Springbrook Crk(lower) at Iron Mtn Park Lake Oswego Riffle 45.4142 -122.7078 04,07,09 Springbrook Crk(rest.) upstream of Boones Way Lake Oswego Riffle 45.4140 -122.7151 04,07,09 Tryon Creek Upstream of Hwy 43 Lake Oswego Riffle 45.4243 -122.6613 07,09 West Br.Lost Dog Creek Lake O.Golf Course Lake Oswego Riffle 45.4100 -122.6782 07,09 Minthorn Creek SE Lake Road Milwaukie Riffle 45.4318 -122.5984 Coffee Creek Lower Coffee Creek Oregon City Riffle 45.3461 -122.6182 Singer Creek Singer Creek Park Oregon City Riffle 45.3477 -122.6020 Tanner Creek Imperial Drive West Linn Riffle 45.3517 -122.6310 Trillium Creek Caloroga Rd West Linn Riffle 45.3957 -122.6378 Boeckman Creek Downstream of Rose Ln Wilsonville Riffle 45.2992 -122.7549 03 Table 1. List of 2013 Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee macroinvertebrates sample sites. Cole Ecological, Inc. 2 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Figure 1. 2013 Clackamas County NPDES co-permittees macroinvertebrate sample sites. ¶ O13Macroinvertebrate Sample Sites 1 Sample sites 1 • 11iu�11111 aomh il ' County Boundaries - _., A W: r _ � . • ? r11 l . i Major Highways __ '`• . _- 1 . {. LI 1 fF /� L f 1 oi 1 2 krri i ~r— 1 1 1� _ 1... ry_ # 4h — A � ..— —..� .,.:— Re 1-71 all Greek Nettle Creek e Oregon Stale } -� Nli ntharn Creek Lemherl Confcrmail • • Tryrxn Creek rr1Qr Crack COfIG Iprcajedi I, I L i .' Springbror�k Crk (Iowan II I / 4 North American • • Qswerjr Creek Dalurn 1983. Sp+ingbretik Crk Veal. riMer0... * • WOW Br, Lo*k Dog Creek R[ Rl f,' R• 2 r . II '. ,. .;1r+1 �,�#1 fir. Lust dig+fir**k J -,I. . • i' ,. • Lost Dog Creek • + •Trillir�rrl cr 4`k lh _- �. . ; _._, . if Rinearsonraek P. • • fl _1 ..I .."....„.„. _ ......... . 1:.:07, ' b. —` 11• Clackamas i•1 . /- /.• '.IIi . CL,.' - 'I r ' F ! / ( N Tdnncr Creek ' v , 1'7 ( . �-;/ Sinker Creek I I • yCarer ' Sr2 (,/ . . ti l' r l - ,f 1 1 • i L 1 A CO r• .- - f k f Cole Ecological, Inc. 3 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates FIELD DATA COLLECTION Macroinvertebrate communities, physical habitat, and water chemistry were sampled at the seventeen study reaches between 14 and 22 September, 2013. First, each study reach was marked and the reach length was measured. Each sample reach measured approximately 75 m, unless the sample reach was obstructed by a culvert, heavy vegetation, or other impediments. HABITAT ASSESSMENTS Habitat surveys were performed in the reaches following modified Rapid Stream Assessment Technique (RSAT) protocols (adapted from Clean Water Services 2000) and consisted of data collection from surveys of channel habitat units, three channel cross sections, and the adjacent riparian zone (Table 2). First, the valley type within which each study reach occurred was broadly classified as U-type, V-type, ponded, or floodplain. A plan view of the reach was sketched as the survey was performed. The physical data were then collected using the following procedures: HABITAT UNITS SURVEY The number, length, width, maximum water depth, and gradient of pools, glides, riffles, and rapids were recorded from each reach. The following definitions were adapted from ODFW's Methods for Stream Habitat Surveys (2002) and Armantrout (1998) and used for this study: Pool: Water surface slope is usually zero. Pools are normally deeper and wider than aquatic habitats immediately above and below. Glide: There is a general lack of consensus of the definition of glides (Hawkins et al. 1993). For the purposes of this study, a glide was defined as an area with generally uniform depth and flow with no surface turbulence. Glides have a low-gradient water surface profile of 0-1% slope. Glides may have some small scour areas but are distinguished from pools by their overall homogeneity and lack of structure. Glides are generally deeper than riffles with few major flow obstructions and low habitat complexity. Riffle: Fast, turbulent, shallow flow over submerged or partially submerged gravel and cobble substrates. Riffles generally have a broad, uniform cross section and a low-to-moderate water surface gradient, usually 0.5-2.0% slope and rarely up to 6%. Rapid: Swift, turbulent flow including chutes and some hydraulic jumps swirling around boulders. Rapids often contain exposed substrate features composed of individual bedrock or boulders, boulder clusters, and partial bars. Rapids are moderately high gradient habitat, usually 2.0-4.0% slope and occasionally 7.0-8.0%. Rapids also include swift, turbulent, "sheeting" flow over smooth bedrock. Cole Ecological, Inc. 4 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Quantitative or Visual Estimate or Categorical Measured Variable Variable Wetted Width Q M Bankfull Width Q M Bankfull Height Q M Mean Water Depth Q M Pools(%of reach length) Q M Glides(%of reach length) Q M Riffles(%of reach length) Q M Rapids(%of reach length) Q M Cascades(%reach length) Q M Reach Embeddedness(%) Q V Eroding Banks(%) Q V Undercut Banks(%) Q V Substrate Composition Q M Substrate Embeddedness(%) Q M Large Wood Rating Q M Overhead Canopy Cover(%) Q M Riparian Buffer Width Q V Riparian Zone Tree Cover(%) Q V Non-native Riparian Veg.Cover(%) Q V Dominant Adjacent Land Use C V Water Temperature(°C) Q M Specific Conductance(µS/cm) Q M Dissolved Oxygen(mg/L) Q M Table 2. Environmental variables measured in the field for characterizing stream reaches sampled for macroinvertebrates in Clackamas County, fall 2013. Cascade: Fast, turbulent flow with many hydraulic jumps and strong chutes and eddies, 30-80% white water. Gradients approaching or exceeding 10.0%. The following attributes were then measured or visually estimated in each channel unit. Dominant substrate was visually estimated in each unit using substrate size classes adapted from EPA's Environmental Monitoring & Assessment Program (EMAP) protocols for wadeable streams (USEPA 2000). Percent substrate embeddedness, percent Cole Ecological, Inc. 5 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates actively eroding banks, and percent undercut banks (both banks, combined) were each visually estimated. Water surface slope of each unit was measured with a clinometer and the value of woody debris to fish in each unit was rated on a scale from one to five, with one representing little or no wood, and five representing large amounts of wood creating abundant cover and refuge. Additionally, all woody debris measuring at least 15 cm in diameter (at estimated diameter breast height) and 2 m in length was tallied for each unit and the configuration, type, location, and size of root wads and pieces of wood were noted. Overhead cover was measured with a spherical densiometer in four directions (upstream, downstream, right, left) from the center of the stream at evenly spaced intervals along the length of the reach (usually every 15 m). Habitat features such as beaver activity, culverts, and potential fish passage barriers were noted by habitat unit. CROSS-SECTION SURVEYS Channel dimensions were measured at three transects occurring within each sample reach. The three habitat units were selected according to the following guidelines: 1. Three separate riffles were sampled if three or more riffles occurred in the reach. 2. If two riffles occurred in the reach, both riffles and a representative glide or pool (least preferred) were sampled. If riffles were of sufficient length (10 m or longer) then more than one set of cross-section measurements were made in the riffle to ensure that all measurements were taken from this habitat type. 3. If only one riffle occurred within the reach, two additional units that represented channel dimensions and substrate composition were sampled. If the riffle was longer than 20 m, then all three sets of measurements were taken from the riffle. 4. If no riffles occurred in the reach, three units that were representative of the channel dimensions and substrate composition occurring within the reach were sampled. At each of the three channel cross sections, wetted width (WW), bankfull width (BFW), maximum bankfull height (BFHmaX), the bankfull height at 25%, 50%, and 75% across the distance of the bankfull channel, and the flood-prone width (FPW) were measured with a tape measure and survey rod. From these channel dimension data, width-to-depth and channel-entrenchment ratios were later calculated. Water depths were recorded at 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90% across the width of the wetted channel. Maximum bank height (Left or Right) and bank angles were visually estimated. Pebble counts were performed in riffles when they represented an adequate amount of the stream channel area to allow measurement of at least 100 substrate particles along transects. If riffles occupied less than 10% of the total habitat area in the reach (e.g. if macroinvertebrate samples were collected from glides in reaches where benthic sampling occurs), then pebble counts occurred in glides. Pebble counts were performed using the "heel-to-toe" method, starting at the bankfull edge on one side of the channel and Cole Ecological, Inc. 6 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates walking heel-to-toe to the other edge (USEPA 2000). With each step, the surveyor looked away and touched the streambed at the tip of their toe. The size class and embeddedness of each piece of streambed substrate was estimated until at least 100 particles were counted. RIPARIAN SURVEYS Adjacent riparian conditions were characterized beyond the left and right banks separately and according to a number of attributes. The dominant plant community type(s) (ash woodland, willow shrub—scrub, upland forest, etc.) occurring in the riparian zone to the edge of human-dominated activity was classified and recorded and the approximate width of each of these community types was visually estimated. The percent vegetative cover of the canopy layer (>5 m high), shrub layer (0.5 to 5 m high), and groundcover layer (<0.5 m high) was estimated, as well as the percent cover of invasive or non-native species as a single estimate across all three vegetative layers. The dominant adjacent land use outside of the vegetated riparian buffer was noted, and then a cross- sectional diagram of the riparian zone was sketched. WATER QUALITY SAMPLING Water quality was sampled from each sample reach prior to collecting macroinvertebrates and performing the reach habitat assessment. Measured water quality parameters included temperature (°C), dissolved oxygen (mg/L), oxygen saturation (%), conductivity (gS/cm), and specific conductance (gS/cm). Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and specific conductance were measured in situ with a YSI Model 85 water chemistry meter. The YSI was re-calibrated for dissolved oxygen saturation at each sample site according the manufacturer's instructions. MACROINVERTEBRATE SAMPLE COLLECTION Macroinvertebrates were collected using the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality's (DEQ) Benthic Macroinvertebrate Protocol for Wadeable Rivers and Streams (DEQ 2003). An 8-kick composite sample was collected from riffles in higher-gradient reaches that supported sufficient riffle habitat; glides were sampled from lower-gradient reaches that lacked riffle habitat. Instream sampling points were selected to apportion the eight kick samples among as many as four habitat units. Macroinvertebrates were collected with a D-frame kicknet (30 cm wide, 500 gm mesh opening) from a 30 x 30 cm (1 x 1 ft) area at each sampling point. Larger pieces of substrate, when encountered, were first hand-washed inside the net, and then placed outside of the sampled area. Then the area was thoroughly disturbed by hand (or by foot in deeper water) to a depth of—10 cm. The eight samples from the reach were composited and carefully washed through a 500 gm sieve to strain fine sediment and hand remove larger substrate and leaves after Cole Ecological, Inc. 7 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates inspection for clinging macroinvertebrates. The composite sample then was placed into one or more 1-L polyethylene wide-mouth jars, labeled, and preserved with 80% denatured ethanol for later sorting and identification at the laboratory. SAMPLE SORTING AND MACROINVERTEBRATE IDENTIFICATION Samples were sorted to remove a 500-organism subsample from each preserved sample following the procedures described in the DEQ Level 3 protocols (Water Quality Interagency Workgroup [WQIW], 1999) and using a Caton gridded tray, as described by Caton (1991). Contents of the sample were first emptied onto the gridded tray and then floated with water to evenly distribute the sample material across the tray. Squares of material from the 30-square gridded tray were transferred to a Petri dish, which was examined under a dissecting microscope at 7-10X magnification to sort aquatic macroinvertebrates from the sample matrix. Macroinvertebrates were removed from each sample until at least 500 organisms were counted, or until the entire sample had been sorted. Following sample sorting, all macroinvertebrates were generally identified to the level of taxonomic resolution recommended for Level 3 macroinvertebrate assessments by the Northwest Biological Assessment Working Group (NBAWG 2002). DATA ANALYSIS A number of standard analytical approaches exist for assessing the condition of macroinvertebrate communities in western Oregon. These approaches can be broadly classified as multimetric indexes and predictive models. Existing tools for analysis of macroinvertebrate data in western Oregon have been developed from, and therefore are only appropriate for, assessment of assemblages collected from coarse substrates (gravels and cobble) in riffle habitat. Consequently, the use of existing bioassessment tools and their attendant condition thresholds is inappropriate for assessing the condition of benthic communities from low-gradient (generally <1.5% slope) streams dominated by fine substrates and glide/pool habitat. Analysis of glide samples collected from these streams with existing bioassessment tools would result in artificially lower index scores and classification of condition. In the present study, two of the seventeen sample sites supported only glide habitat and fine substrates, a condition likely naturally occurring in each system. Accordingly, these two sites were not assigned condition classifications following data analysis. MULTIMETRIC INDEX ANALYSIS Multimetric analysis employs a set of metrics, each of which describes an attribute of the macroinvertebrate community that has been shown to be responsive to one or more types of pollution or habitat degradation. Each community metric is converted to a standardized score; standardized scores of all metrics are then summed to produce a single multimetric score that is an index of overall biological integrity. Metric sets and Cole Ecological, Inc. 8 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates standardized metric scoring criteria are developed and calibrated for specific stream types and geographic locales. The DEQ has developed and currently employs a 10-metric set for use with riffle samples from higher-gradient streams in western Oregon (WQIW 1999). Owing to the lack of reference conditions for low-gradient, glide-dominated valley-floor streams, no multimetric index currently exists for such stream types in this region. The DEQ 10-metric set includes six positive metrics that score higher with improved biological conditions, and four negative metrics that score lower with improved conditions (Table 3). Mayflies (order Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (order Plecoptera), and caddisflies (order Trichoptera) are widely regarded among the aquatic insect orders as the most sensitive to water pollution and habitat degradation; accordingly, three metrics in the index summarize taxonomic richness within these three insect orders. These three orders of insects are collectively referred to as the "EPT" taxa, derived from the first letter in each of the order names. Scoring Criteria Metric 5 3 1 POSITIVE METRICS Taxa richness >35 19-35 <19 Mayfly richness >8 4-8 <4 Stonefly richness >5 3-5 <3 Caddisfly richness >8 4-8 <4 Number sensitive taxa >4 2-4 <2 #Sediment sensitive taxa >_2 1 0 NEGATIVE METRICS Modified HBI1 <4.0 4.0-5.0 >5.0 %Tolerant taxa <15 15-45 >45 %Sediment tolerant taxa <10 10-25 >25 %Dominant <20 20-40 >40 1 Modified HBI=Modified Hilsenhoff Biotic Index Table 3. Multi-metric set and scoring criteria(WQIW 1999) used to assess the condition of macroinvertebrate communities from Clackamas County streams in fall 2013. The Modified Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), originally developed by Hilsenhoff (1982), computes an index to organic enrichment pollution based on the relative abundance of various taxa at a reach. Values of the index range from 1 to 10; higher scores are interpreted as an indication of a macroinvertebrate community more tolerant to fluctuations in water temperature, fine sediment inputs, and organic enrichment. Sensitive taxa are those that are intolerant of warm water temperatures, high sediment loads, and organic enrichment; tolerant taxa are adapted to persist under such adverse conditions. Cole Ecological, Inc. 9 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates The DEQ taxa attribute coding system was used to assign these classifications to taxa in the data set (DEQ, unpublished information). Metric values first were calculated for each riffle sample and then were converted to standardized scores using DEQ scoring criteria for riffle samples from western Oregon streams (Table 3). The standardized scores were summed to produce a multimetric score ranging between 10 and 50. Reaches were then assigned a level of impairment based on these total scores (Table 4). Level of Impairment Score Range(scale of 10-50) None >39 Slight 30-39 Moderate 20-29 Severe <20 Table 4. Multimetric score ranges for assignment of macroinvertebrate community condition levels (WQIW 1999). PREDATOR MWCF MODEL PREDATOR is a predictive model that evaluates macroinvertebrate community conditions based on a comparison of observed (0) to expected (E) taxa (Hawkins et al. 2000, Hubler 2008). The observed taxa are those that occurred at the reach, whereas the expected taxa are those expected to occur (>50% probability of occurrence) in the reach in the absence of disturbance. Biological condition is determined by comparing the O/E score at the test site to the distribution of reference reach O/E scores in the model. One major strength of PREDATOR over the multimetric approach is that a single predictive model can be constructed to assess biological conditions over a wide range of environmental gradients such as stream slope, longitude, or elevation, whereas separate multimetric tools would have to be developed to make accurately assess condition. PREDATOR is able to predict taxonomic composition across a range of naturally occurring environmental gradients with discriminant functions models (DFMs). Discriminant functions analysis is used during the model building phase to identify the environmental variables that are statistically related to natural gradients in macroinvertebrate community composition (Hawkins et al. 2000). These "predictor variables" are used in the resulting model to predict macroinvertebrate community composition in the absence of disturbance. The model assigns a probability of class membership of each test site to the different classes of test sites specified in the model based on the environmental predictor variables that are input into the model. Several geographically specific PREDATOR models are currently in use in Oregon. The Marine Western Coastal Forest (MWCF) model includes the Willamette Valley and lower western foothills of the Cascades. Accordingly, this model was used for the present study. Predictor variables and taxonomic data were input into the model, which Cole Ecological, Inc. 10 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates calculated the probability of occurrence of each taxon at each study site (in the absence of disturbance). With this information, the model calculates the O/E score for each site. Using the MWCF biological condition thresholds (Hubler 2008), higher-gradient streams with O/E scores <0.85 (<10th percentile of reference site scores) were classified as "most disturbed," 0.86 to 0.91 (>10th to 25th percentile) as "moderately disturbed," and 0.92 to 1.24 (25th to 95th percentile) as "least disturbed." STRESS OR MODELS Weighted-average (WA) inference models were developed by DEQ (Huff et al. 2006) to reveal shifts in macroinvertebrate assemblage composition that implicate either substrate degradation (i.e. fine sediment pollution) or temperature pollution. These WA inference models for temperature and sediment are to be used as screening tools to assist with detecting the source(s) of stress to biological communities in wadeable Oregon streams. Inferred values at a test site are compared to conditions observed at regional reference sites to determine if there is a difference in assemblage-level preferences for temperature or fine sediment (Huff et al. 2006). The 75th percentile of the distribution of inferred temperature and fine-sediment values from regional reference sites is used to determine whether a particular site is potentially stressed by one or both of these attributes. In the analysis for this study, temperature stress and fine-sediment stress weighted- average inference models were first run to derive estimates of inferred water temperatures (temperature scores, or TS) and sediment levels (fine sediment scores, or FSS) in each study reach. Both temperature and fine-sediment models were applied to riffle data, while only the temperature model was applied to glide data. Glide data were not run through the fine-sediment model because fine sediment levels would be expected to differ significantly between the higher- and lower-gradient reach types. For riffle samples, DEQ's thresholds of 18.2°C for temperature and 15% of fine sediment (75th percentile of the distribution of DEQ Willamette Valley reference site scores) were used to determine whether each was a potential stressor in each sample reach (Huff et al. 2006). In lower- gradient reaches that supported only glide and pool habitats, DEQ's 90th percentile temperature value of 18.4°C was used to initially assess temperature as a potential stressor in this reach type (DEQ, unpublished data). Cole Ecological, Inc. 11 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates RESULTS ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS LAKE OSWEGO STREAM REACHES Land use adjacent to the ten previously assessed Lake Oswego study reaches did not change significantly from 2009 to 2013. Study reaches primarily occurred in areas dominated by moderate density residential land use within Lake Oswego's city limits. Reaches were represented by a range of stream channel and riparian conditions (Table 5). Across most sites, stream habitat was co-dominated by riffle and pool habitats; riffle habitat averaged 42% across all study reaches, while pool habitat averaged 46% (Table 5). Carter (14.7% riffle habitat) and West Lost Dog (16.2% riffle habitat) creeks supported the lowest frequency of riffle habitat. In 2013, it was noted that Carter Creek's "riffle" habitat was limited to a short section of creek in the middle of the reach that contained cobble-sized fill material used to bury a water or sewer line. Because no naturally occurring riffle habitat occurred in this section of Carter, only a glide sample was collected from this reach in 2013. Streambed substrate within Lake Oswego study reaches primarily comprised coarse materials, which represented an average of 69% (2009: 69%; 2007: 58%) of streambed material across all study reaches (Table 5 and Figure 2). Bedrock was absent from all reaches, excepting Nettle Creek, where it represented 1% of the stream substrate within sampled riffle habitats. Substrate embeddedness derived from pebble counts was generally high and was similar between 2013 and 2009, averaging 45.5 and 49.1, respectively. Carter Creek again had the highest reach-wide substrate embeddedness of 98% in 2013 (versus 83% in 2007 and 82% in 2009), where sand and fines were the predominant substrates. Pebble count substrate embeddedness (which are collected in the habitat from which macroinvertebrates are collected) values were far higher in Carter Creek in 2013 than in 2009 because macroinvertebrates were sampled from glides rather than from the "artificial" riffle in Carter Creek in 2013. Forested riparian zone widths are generally narrow across the Lake Oswego study reaches, as buffer widths ranged from 5 to 65 m and average 25 m. Mature forested riparian zones also occurred along most Lake Oswego study reaches (excluding Carter Creek), providing overhead cover ranging from 68 to 99%. Carter Creek, where sampled, flowed through a reed canary grass-dominated meadow which provided 28% overhead cover (38% in 2009 and 27% in 2007). Riparian conditions in the Springbrook Creek restoration reach continue to improve as a result of willow plantings in the early 2000s. Willows in the riparian area of the Springbrook Creek restoration reach have continued to grow, resulting in further increases in canopy cover to 93% in 2013 from 80% in 2009 and 55% in 2007. Cole Ecological, Inc. 12 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Other Co-Permittees(n=7) Lake Oswego(n= 10) Variable Mean SD Min Max Mean SD Min Max Wetted width(m) 1.5 0.4 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.4 0.7 4.8 Bankfull width(m) 2.8 0.8 1.8 3.8 4.6 3.1 1.1 10.2 %Pool 29.3 18.7 0.0 50.7 46.0 14.4 32.0 70.7 %Glide 17.8 35.7 0.0 94.7 8.1 8.5 0.0 24.7 %Riffle 45.2 26.7 5.3 80.0 42.3 17.6 14.7 66.3 %Rapid 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 %Cascade 7.8 16.5 0.0 44.3 3.6 8.1 0.0 25.3 %Embeddedness(reach visual est) 35.4 29.4 15.8 100.0 30.9 24.6 12.0 97.5 %Eroding Banks 53.9 24.3 19.9 73.8 52.1 31.9 0.0 98.2 %Undercut Banks 2.8 3.5 0.0 8.5 2.8 3.4 0.0 9.0 %Coarse substrate 69.0 32.8 0.0 94.4 70.2 29.1 10.0 98.3 %Sand and fines 16.0 37.2 0.0 100.0 10.7 21.4 0.0 70.0 %Hardpan 1.5 2.6 0.0 6.9 2.5 6.0 0.0 19.3 Embeddedness(pebble count) 56.5 23.8 25.6 100.0 45.5 17.4 23.9 86.4 LWD rating 0.6 0.9 0.0 1.9 0.6 0.6 0.0 1.7 Overhead Cover 73.2 32.6 6.9 98.2 86.0 22.0 28.7 99.3 Riparian Buffer Width(m) 15.0 12.1 2.0 28.0 25.3 18.4 5.0 65.0 %Tree Cover 42.7 26.4 5.0 78.0 60.4 19.6 33.0 88.0 %Non-Native Veg 47.7 16.0 30.0 73.0 36.1 22.3 0.0 68.0 Water Temperature(°C) 16.4 1.8 14.1 19.1 15.1 2.4 13.0 21.2 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 83.7 13.2 60.7 94.2 84.1 11.0 61.0 94.0 Dissolved Oxygen(mg/L) 8.2 1.5 5.7 9.4 8.5 1.3 6.0 9.9 Conductivity(µS/cm) 117.2 51.6 36.3 165.7 122.6 30.7 93.7 190.6 Specific Conductance(µS/cm) 127.2 55.1 40.0 175.2 135.4 33.1 106.1 208.4 Table 5. Environmental conditions measured in Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee stream reaches sampled for macroinvertebrates in fall 2013. Limited water quality sampling during macroinvertebrate sampling in 2013 suggested potential low dissolved oxygen issues in several Lake Oswego stream reaches. While dissolved oxygen concentrations exceeded 8 mg/L in most reaches (measurements taken at various times of the day and not necessarily during peak stress early AM hours), Carter Creek dissolved oxygen was 6.0 mg/L (collected at 1330), the lowest among Lake Oswego study reaches, suggesting likely periodic low-DO-induced stress in this reach. CO-PERMITTEE STREAM REACHES Land use adjacent to the seven co-permittee reaches was variable, ranging from moderate density residential to commercial/industrial. All streams were smaller first or second-order tributaries; bankfull widths averaged 2.8 m and ranged from 1.8 to 3.8 m, while wetted channel widths averaged 1.5 m and ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 m (Table 5). Riffle habitat ranged from 5.3 to 80%. Six of seven reaches supported sufficient riffle area to sample macroinvertebrates from this habitat type; among the seven reaches, only Rinearson Creek lacked sufficient riffle habitat. Cole Ecological, Inc. 13 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Figure 2. Substrate composition and embeddedness from pebble counts performed in 17 Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee streams sampled for determining conditions of macroinvertebrate communities in September 2013. Streambed Substrate %Coarse substrate ■%Sand and fines ®%Hardpan 100 - - z 90 - - - - • 80 - - 0 70 - 60 _ - U 50 40 30 - C 20 - l0 ze'* e°,'F �� egg e egg z e ej.* e5` e, #' 416 e k Cfc G; Gt G� G G� G� G; G� Gs ��V Gi GS ,"-- yo G4 ,}SS` ' ` G ` veG , o� cO 4'. O5 4C yo Su vo5 � % Other Co-Permittees Lake Oswego Substrate Embeddedness 100 - — 90 - u 80 - ' 70 - E 60 • 50 - — — — C 40 - — u 30 - — — Q 20 10 - 0 vi e16 ryder i yb ¢di ��t •J`' icre y �.�° $ G ° o �G Dy' Gib �t1 Other Co-Pernuttees Lake Oswego Cole Ecological, Inc. 14 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Streambed substrate in sampled habitats was dominated by coarse materials in six of the seven co-permittee reaches (Figure 2). In contrast, Rinearson Creek lacked substrates larger than fine gravels and was heavily dominated by sand and fines (Figure 2). Embeddedness varied among sites, but was generally high, ranging from 26% to 100% (Table 5). Substrate embeddedness from habitats sampled for macroinvertebrate was less than 50% in only Tanner and Trillium creeks (Figure 2). Riparian buffer widths were generally narrow among the seven co-permittee reaches, averaging 15 m and ranging from 2 to 33 m. Overhead canopy cover exceeded 80% in five of the seven reaches; overhead cover was only 6% along the Minthorn Creek reach and 56% along the Rinearson Creek reach. Riparian tree cover was lacking in both of these reaches, averaging 5% along Minthorn Creek and 15% along Rinearson Creek. Limited water quality sampling indicated potential low dissolved oxygen problems in both Rinearson (5.7 mg/L) and Minthorn (6.5 mg/L) creeks. Dissolved oxygen concentrations from the other five reaches approached or exceeded 9 mg/L. MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY CONDITIONS LAKE OSWEGO STREAM REACHES Multimetric Index (MMI) scores and PREDATOR MWCF O/E scores indicated biological conditions generally similar to those measured in 2009 (Table 6, Table 7, and Figure 3). MMI scores ranged among the ten Lake Oswego reaches from 10 to 24, and eight of the ten sites scored lower than 20, corresponding to "severely disturbed" biological conditions. Only the Springbrook Creek restoration reach and the Tryon Creek reach MMI scores occurred outside their 2004-2009 ranges. Moreover, only the Springbrook Creek restoration reach (MMI score = 20) and the Tryon Creek reach (MMI score = 24) scored outside of the "severely disturbed" range, and only marginally. In fact, the Tryon Creek duplicate sample received an MMI score of 18, suggesting that conditions are likely on the threshold between severely and moderately disturbed in this reach. PREDATOR O/E scores ranged from 0.194 to 0.437, occurring exclusively in the "most disturbed" condition class (equivalent to the MMI "severely disturbed" class). The lower Springbrook Creek reach's MMI score of 20 represents the largest difference from 2009 scores, when this reach received the lowest possible MMI score of 10. For the first time since initiating sampling in 2004, three mayfly taxa (Baetis tricaudatus, Paraleptophlebia debilis, and Cinygma sp.) were sampled from the reach; while Baetis tricaudatus has been sampled from the reach in each sampling year, Cinygma sp. has been sampled only once before, and Paraleptophlebia debilis had never previously been sampled. Furthermore, for the first time since the inception of routine sampling in 2004, two caddisfly taxa (Cheumatopsyche sp. and Lepidostoma sp.) were Cole Ecological, Inc. 15 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates sampled from the reach. Neither had previously been sampled from the Springbrook Creek restoration reach. Habitat MMI Disturbance O/E Disturbance Waterbody Sampled Score Class Score Class TS FSS Boeckman Creek Riffle 20 Mod/Severe 0.388 Most 22.9 30.6 Coffee Creek Riffle 36 Slight 0.630 Most 17.2 22.1 Minthorn Creek Riffle 16 Severe 0.388 Most 23.4 51.2 Rinearson Creek Glide 14 0.242 21.0 Singer Creek Riffle 30 Slight/Mod 0.581 Most 16.2 24.0 Tanner Creek Riffle 18 Severe 0.242 Most 16.1 18.2 Trillium Creek Riffle 20 Mod/Severe 0.485 Most 20.0 23.7 Ball Creek Riffle 18 Severe 0.437 Most 20.6 42.8 Carter Creek Glide 16 0.388 21.9 Lost Dog Creek Riffle 16 Severe 0.291 Most 15.9 32.3 Lost Dog Creek East Riffle 18 Severe 0.436 Most 16.8 49.5 Lost Dog Creek West Riffle 10 Severe 0.242 Most 19.3 43.3 Nettle Creek Riffle 18 Severe 0.339 Most 16.8 21.5 Oswego Creek Riffle 14 Severe 0.194 Most 26.3 54.2 Springbrook Crk Rest Riffle 20 Mod/Severe 0.388 Most 21.2 36.8 Springbrook Crk Lower Riffle 16 Severe 0.437 Most 22.1 38.6 Tryon Creek Riffle 24 Moderate 0.485 Most 21.2 18.1 Table 6. Summary of Multimetric Index (MMI) scores, PREDATOR MWCF model O/E scores, and temperature (TS) and fine sediment (FSS) stressor model scores calculated from macroinvertebrate samples collected from 17 Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee streams in September 2013. Highlighted TS and FSS scores indicate values that exceed DEQ inferred stressor thresholds of 18.2°C and 15% fine sediment. Temperature stressor (TS) scores indicate that compositional shifts in macroinvertebrate communities have occurred in seven of the ten Lake Oswego stream reaches (Table 6). Only lower Lost Dog Creek, East Lost Dog Creek, and Nettle Creek appear to support macroinvertebrate communities unaffected by elevated water temperatures. Among those seven reaches indicating temperature-induced stress, Oswego Creek's community showed the largest shift likely induced by temperature, as the inferred temperature score was 26.3°C, more than 4°C higher than the second highest score (Table 6). Cole Ecological, Inc. 16 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Figure 3. Multimetric index (MMI) and Marine Western Coastal Forest (MWCF) PREDATOR model scores calculated from 17 macroinvertebrate samples collected from Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee streams in September 2013. 2013 MMI Scores 41 - 35 - 30 25 210 - 15 10 5 ! . cf c ' /ce ;op �, (. , 'cF r. 2013 MWCF Scars 0.9 - - 0-7 0_6 ��.. as 3 ciz 0.1 i ther Cu-Perm'mem Lac Osweoo Cole Ecological, Inc. 17 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Fine sediment stressor (FSS) scores from all nine Lake Oswego samples collected from riffle habitats (i.e., all reaches other than Carter Creek) indicated likely sediment- induced stress on macroinvertebrate communities in these reaches. All nine samples exceeded the threshold FSS score of 15, and only two of the nine reaches scored lower than 30 (Table 6). DEQ Multimetric Index Scores PREDATOR O/E Scores Sample Site 2004 2007 2009 2013 09-13 2004 2007 2009 2013 09-13 Ball Creek 20 12 12 18 6 0.243 0.339 0.243 0.437 0.194 Carter Creek 16 14 16 2 0.388 0.388 0.388 0.000 Lost Dog Creek 18 16 16 16 0 0.242 0.291 0.339 0.291 -0.048 Lost Dog Creek East 16 18 18 0 0.291 0.436 0.436 0.000 Lost Dog Creek West 14 10 10 0 0.242 0.194 0.232 0.038 Nettle Creek 18 14 12 18 6 0.436 0.533 0.388 0.339 -0.049 Oswego Creek 18 12 14 2 0.436 0.194 0.194 0.000 Springbrook Creek Lower 14 12 10 20 10 0.242 0.388 0.339 0.388 0.049 Springbrook Restoration 16 14 12 16 4 0.339 0.436 0.291 0.437 0.146 Tryon Creek 14 18 24 6 0.532 0.388 0.485 0.097 Table 7. Multimetric Index scores and PREDATOR MWCF model O/E scores from stream reaches sampled in and adjacent to the City of Lake Oswego, Oregon, fall 2004, 2007, 2009, and 2013. DEQ score corresponding levels of impairment: <20 = severe, 20- 29 = moderate, 30-39 = slight, >39 = none. O/E score corresponding levels of impairment: <0.75 = poor/severely impaired, 0.75-0.90 = fair/slightly impaired, >0.90 = good/unimpaired. CO-PERMITTEE STREAM REACHES MMI scores ranged from 14 to 36 among the seven co-permittee reaches (Table 6). Coffee Creek received the highest MMI score of 36, corresponding to a slightly disturbed biological condition. Singer Creek scored a 30, corresponding to slightly/moderately disturbed. Boeckman Creek received an MMI score of 20, indicating moderately/severely disturbed conditions. Minthorn and Tanner creeks both scored in the severely disturbed range (Table 6). PREDATOR O/E scores ranged from 0.242 to 0.630, exclusively within the "most disturbed" condition class among the seven co-permittee reaches (Table 6). Rinearson Creek was not assigned a condition class based on either assessment tool because only glides were sampled from this reach. Among the seven reaches, macroinvertebrate total taxa richness was highest in Coffee Creek, as 28 taxa were sampled (Figure 4). This richness included 12 EPT taxa (mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly), the highest richness in these generally disturbance- intolerant orders among all seventeen reaches sampled in this study. Coffee Creek's EPT richness included three taxa classified as sensitive to disturbance and water pollution, Cole Ecological, Inc. 18 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Figure 4. Individual community metric values calculated from macroinvertebrate samples collected from 17 Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee streams in September 2013. Total Richness Mayfly Richness Stonefly Richness 100- 6- 5- y 80- o . 4• m F 4" F 60- c 3- i 40- -11 2. o 2" HI 4 20-11 itillliili Z 0 ��� I z 0- qL-r-11 gt Lgbbg gc2' n5�0'eo`3a.7 t' ECso°ge°9 peso eoiic..a• EC`o L°,e11 iin eoi�'a.7'' 3Ufi m ig1 CI U „agil cF ,5 a 5F'=FC U»P�poZO..g , U iin E,C U»Qp°Z 3 4xF" Caddistly Richness Number of Sensitive Taxa Modified HBI 6- 4- 8- 7- F 3" F 4- oo 6 o o 4 L i o g 5 411 o e oeeo o` a aam3fa60 0EEebb5 =t" l ge oe ogei5 pG°g i' ; es � 081,G2k.1 1e +eei -wirnP4 sr� ` U .Q2 . mU9a -g Scaa m le — v° °It mU5a oZ°A S �,a ,S ,,,, Et Percent Dominance Percent Tolerant Individuals %Sediment Tolerant Organisms 100- 50- 80- u 80 u 40 ' 60- 1 60- i 30- C C 40- a 40 a 20 0 t 200. 2II liii �II P. 10-011 TIIII, Lii, W 0" odEe..t8 R,. Wom"'ih1T '9 1Eoa`,`5 =yomd y1e ootootts _.`�.c� =iy3e 5 os8em= m,=.,,ov3P4. EozEcco mmG°gg°�..3°g t' 5ei �� mm�gg�b23P�G oI ,,,U a.g s a U yG4ZOY 4F YjU p GrnF� U mF7O ZO�YF ,SU S hF'C U mF7O ZOYYF �a E~ Sa ��n m a F ,�, . mimeo m' g5G H S,r. �� .7 a s .2 a s .2 a c, nm mn mrn including the mayfly Cinygma sp., the stonefly Despaxia augusta, and the caddisfly Rhyacophila grandis Gr. Singer Creek supported 24 total taxa, including ten EPT taxa, five of which were mayfly taxa (Figure 4). Furthermore, Singer Creek's modified HBI score, percent tolerant individuals, and percent sediment tolerant individuals were the lowest among all seventeen study sites (Figure 4), indicating a macroinvertebrate community most sensitive to disturbance among all reaches sampled. The Trillium Creek sample supported five EPT taxa (Figure 4), and included one sensitive taxon, Cinygma sp., while the Boeckman Creek sample supported three EPT Cole Ecological, Inc. 19 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates taxa and no taxa classified as sensitive. Boeckman Creek's 2013 macroinvertebrate sample MMI score of 20 was similar to the 2003 sample score of 16, suggesting similar benthic community conditions. In each year, three EPT taxa were sampled from this reach, and all other individual metrics were similar(Table 8). Metric 2003 2013 Taxa Richness 17 19 Mayfly Richness 2 1 Stonefly Richness 0 0 Caddisfly Richness 1 2 # Sensitive Taxa 1 0 # Sediment Sensitive Taxa 0 0 Modified HBI 5.5 5.3 % Tolerant Taxa 25 37 % Sediment Tolerant 4 5.7 % Dominant (1 taxon) 40 30.8 MMI Score 16 20 Table 8. Macroinvertebrate community metrics calculated from samples collected from Boeckman Creek below Rose Lane,Wilsonville, Oregon in 2003 and again in 2013. Among co-permittee reaches from which riffles were sampled, Tanner and Minthorn creeks received the lowest MMI and O/E scores (Table 6). The Tanner Creek sample supported the lowest total taxa richness among all seventeen study reaches (Figure 4). HBI scores from these two reaches were highest among the six co-permittee reaches from which riffle samples were collected (Figure 4). Rinearson Creek received the lowest MMI and O/E scores among the seven co- permittee reaches; however, riffles were nearly absent from this reach, necessitating sampling macroinvertebrates from sand-dominated glide habitat. As such, condition classes were not assigned to the community scores calculated for this reach. Among the seventeen study reaches, only Rinearson and Lost Dog creek (Lost Dog at Lake Front Road) samples failed to support any EPT taxa. Temperature stressor (TS) scores indicate temperature-stress-induced shifts in macroinvertebrate communities have likely occurred in four of the seven co-permittee reaches, including Boeckman, Minthorn, Rinearson, and Trillium creeks (Table 6). Fine sediment stressor (FSS) scores indicate FS-induced stress in all six reaches from which riffle samples were collected. Generally high embeddedness values across all study reaches corroborate this finding (Figure 2). Cole Ecological, Inc. 20 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates DISCUSSION Owing to the extent of urban development within the study area, results indicating that biological conditions are severely disturbed in most local streams (Figure 5) are not unexpected. The results of this study are consistent with the results of other studies of macroinvertebrate communities in Clackamas County urban/suburban settings. Clackamas Water Environment Services most recently sampled macroinvertebrates in the Mt. Scott and Kellogg Creek drainages in 2011; among seven riffle samples collected from these two drainages in the 2011 study, five received "severely disturbed" and two received "moderately disturbed" MMI scores (Lemke et al. 2012). In the present study, while PREDATOR O/E scores correspond well with MMI scores (r2 = 0.693), condition classes do not align between the two sets of scores (Figure 6). Importantly, DEQ currently uses the PREDATOR models to evaluate biological condition of Oregon's streams; by that measure, all reaches evaluated in this study are deemed to be in a most disturbed condition relative to regional reference conditions (Figure 6). However, the MMI scores and corresponding condition classes better and more tangibly reflect the range of conditions that currently exist among these small streams sampled in this study. Higher MMI scores result directly from higher taxonomic richness, including that of generally more sensitive groups such as mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies. Recognizing this range of biological conditions across these study reaches is instructive to understanding and setting potential biological recovery targets; the highest quality reaches such as Coffee and Singer Creeks represent locally realistic least- disturbed and therefore potentially best attainable conditions for these small streams in local urban and suburban settings. A closer examination of the drainages supporting these reaches may reveal what physical and chemical conditions are necessary to support these locally least-disturbed biological conditions as measured in Coffee and Singer creeks. Further quantification of potential stressors in these and the other systems, including water temperature regime and diel patterns of dissolved oxygen concentrations during peak-stress periods may further reveal potentially causative agents producing the observed biological conditions. Temperature and fine sediment stressor modelling results suggested nearly ubiquitous fine sediment stress across study reaches, and potential temperature-induced stress in most reaches. Coffee and Singer creeks were among the few reaches supporting macroinvertebrate communities not exhibiting temperature- induced compositional shifts. While the dissolved oxygen data collected for this study are of limited use for relating observed biological conditions to environmental gradients, the data nonetheless suggest potential dissolved oxygen issues in several systems, including Minthorn, Rinearson, and Carter Creeks. Importantly, dissolved oxygen data were collected at the Cole Ecological, Inc. 21 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Figure 5. Distribution of macroinvertebrate community condition classes from 15 Clackamas County MS4 co-permittee streams sampled in September 2013, as determined from multimetric index (MMI) scores. Rinearson and Carter Creeks are not included in these results, as glides were sampled from each of these two reaches, thereby precluding the assignment of condition classes. MMI CONDITION CLASS 12 - 10 - 8 - 0 6 - a) 4 - 2 - 0 Slight Slight/Mod Moderate Mod/Severe Severe Condition Class (Disturbance Level) time of macroinvertebrate sampling from each reach, so times varied across reaches and occurred only in the early AM hours from a handful of reaches. Continuous or synoptic temperature and dissolved oxygen monitoring is recommended from these reaches to produce more robust water quality data sets that would better implicate causes of the measured biological disturbance. Noteworthy findings in this study include the potential recovery of benthic communities in the Springbrook Creek restoration reach. EPT richness was notably higher in this reach than had ever been sampled, and riparian conditions apparently continue to improve. While conditions still score in the moderately-to-severely impaired range, the presence of these EPT taxa suggests improvement. Future sampling will reveal whether this change in 2013 is a more permanent result of restoration work or simply climate/weather-induced year-to-year variation. Because riffle habitats were lacking in both the Rinearson and Carter creek reaches, both were excluded from comparative assessments among sites. Identifying alternative reaches supporting riffle habitat and coarse substrates is recommended for future sampling from these systems. If such reaches cannot be found, omitting these systems from future biological monitoring should be considered. Cole Ecological, Inc. 22 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates For the first time since biological sampling was initiated in Lake Oswego streams in 2004, no EPT taxa were sampled from lower Lost Dog Creek. However, both MMI and O/E scores have remained similar among the four years of sampling from this reach. Nonetheless, the absence of any EPT taxa from the sample warrants further attention to this reach during future sampling events, as persistence of this change would suggest further degradation of the lower reaches of Lost Dog Creek. Figure 6. Relationship between MMI and O/E scores. 1 - • I 0.9 - Mod Disturbed I I 4 Most Disturbed I 0.8 - I I I 0.7 - I I 0.6 y=0.0161x+0.0862 • R2=0.6931 V � � m 0.5 - • 0.4 - • • 0.3 - • • I I 0.2 - • I I I I 0.1 - I I Severe I Moderate I Slight 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 MIMT Score The Boeckman Creek reach below the Rose Lane culvert replacement project had not been assessed since 2003, or three years prior to the culvert being replaced with a foot bridge. Macroinvertebrate community conditions were similar between the 2003 and 2013 sampling events, suggesting recovery of the community following any short-term disturbance that may have resulted from the culvert replacement work. While habitat sampling protocols differed slightly between the 2003 and 2013 sampling events, the data are suggestive of similar habitat conditions with respect to bank stability, habitat types, and riparian conditions. As a result of the culvert removal, a larger amount of coarse substrate appeared to be in the stream channel immediately above and below the bridge. Recovery of biological communities in these MS4 co-permittee area streams is dependent on identifying and improving stream conditions and functions that are currently impaired. While additional water quality data would further elucidate likely cause-effect relationships, stressor model results, combined with the results of physical Cole Ecological, Inc. 23 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates habitat assessments, are suggestive of multiple stressors co-occurring in most streams assessed in this study. This phenomenon, known as "urban stream syndrome" or "multiple stress syndrome" is well documented among urban streams (Walsh et al. 2005). Mechanisms driving the syndrome are complex, yet stream hydro-modification from efficient stormwater delivery into receiving waters is largely responsible for the various perturbations observed and measured in this and other studies. These highly modified hydrologic patterns destabilize streamflows and alter seasonal high and low flows, pollutant concentrations, temperature and dissolved oxygen extremes, sediment inputs, and channel morphology. These numerous perturbations ultimately result in significant impact to biological communities such as those measured in this study. Protection of area streams should focus on maximizing riparian buffer protection, minimizing total effective impervious areas, and improving stormwater retention and drainage patterns to minimize the hydrologic effects of storm events on stream channel conditions. Research has shown that the hydraulic efficiency of stormwater drainage influences the relationship between catchment imperviousness and receiving water biology (Walsh 2005). As such, widespread installation and retrofitting with innovative approaches to drainage design will be necessary to achieve the conservation and restoration of streams in Clackamas County urban environments. Further development within Clackamas County will necessitate careful attention to these and other measures intended to preserve and enhance stream conditions and functions. As such stormwater best management practices and other restoration activities are undertaken, these data will assist with determining the success of these actions relative to their intended benefits to aquatic life. RECOMMENDATIONS • Continue periodic biological monitoring to produce robust data sets of biological condition status and trends • Establish continuous temperature monitoring (and potentially regular DO monitoring) at water quality/biological monitoring stations. These data will offer better opportunities for identifying potential causative agents in producing observed biological conditions • Further characterize and quantify physical, chemical, and hydrologic conditions in study area drainages to understand potential causation in observed variation in biological conditions among streams • Identify alternative sampling reaches in Carter and Rinearson creeks or consider omission from biological sampling. Cole Ecological, Inc. 24 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates LITERATURE CITED Armantrout, N. B. (Compiler). 1998. Glossary of aquatic habitat inventory terminology. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD. Brown and Caldwell. 2012. Comprehensive Clackamas County NPDES MS4 Stormwater Monitoring Plan. Unpublished report prepared for Clackamas County and NPDES MS4 co-permittees. Clean Water Services. 2000. Tualatin River Basin Rapid Stream Assessment Technique. Unpublished technical report prepared by Clean Water Services, Hillsboro, OR 35 pp. Cole, M. B. 2004. City of Wilsonville 2003 Macroinvertebrate Assessment. Unpublished report prepared for the City of Wilsonville. Cole, M. B., and A. P. Harris. 2004. City of Lake Oswego 2004 Macroinvertebrate Assessment. Unpublished report prepared for the City of Lake Oswego, Oregon. 18 pp. DEQ, 2003. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Protocol for Wadeable Rivers and Streams. Unpublished methods manual. Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Portland, OR. Hubler, S. 2008. PREDATOR: Development and use of RIVPACS-type macroinvertebrate models to assess the biotic condition of wadeable Oregon streams. Unpublished report prepared by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Watershed Assessment Section. 51 pp. Lemke, J. L., and M. B. Cole. 2007. City of Lake Oswego 2007 Macroinvertebrate Assessment. Unpublished report prepared for the City of Lake Oswego, OR. 30 pp. Lemke, J.L., M.B. Cole, and J Dvorsky. 2012. Assessment of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities and Geomorphic Conditions in streams of Clackamas County Service District #1. Unpublished report prepared for Clackamas Water Environment Services, Oregon City, OR. 49 pp. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2002. Methods for Stream Habitat Surveys. Unpublished technical document by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Salem, OR. NBAWG 2002 (unpublished draft). Level 3 standard taxonomic effort for benthic invertebrate biomonitoring studies in the Pacific Northwest. www.xerces.org Walsh, C.J., A.H. Roy, J.W. Feminella, P.D. Cottingham, P.M. Groffman, and R.P Morgan II. 2005. The urban stream syndrome: current knowledge and the search for a cure. J. N. Am. Benhol. Soc. 24(3): 706-723 Cole Ecological, Inc. 25 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Appendix 1. Environmental conditions measured from 17 Clackamas County NPDES MS4 co-permittee stream reaches, fall 2013. Lt, 3 ,._ x C4 ,l 0 ,x I '6 o o y U U U a�i y U W " U o 0 U o 0 o U o A A U 5 U o o U U U A Q Q own . 5 ,4 g ' p Variable = U a a 1 Z O H = U in Hi F Reach length(m) 75 75 75 50 75 80 75 75 84 80 100 50 45 75 75 75 75 Wetted width(m) 1.4 1.6 1.1 1.0 0.7 1.2 4.8 1.7 1.9 4.5 1.9 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.9 2.0 Bankfull width(m) 5.0 7.9 3.5 1.3 1.1 2.8 10.2 2.9 2.9 8.0 3.4 2.4 2.1 3.4 1.8 3.0 3.8 %Pool 32.0 70.7 42.7 45.1 70.3 33.8 53.3 34.7 42.9 34.6 45.0 10.0 42.2 0.0 29.9 27.1 50.7 %Glide 9.3 14.7 5.3 0.0 13.5 0.0 0.0 13.3 0.0 24.7 30.0 0.0 0.0 94.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 %Riffle 50.7 14.7 26.7 54.9 16.2 66.3 46.7 49.3 57.1 40.7 25.0 80.0 57.8 5.3 70.1 28.6 49.3 %Rapid 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 %Cascade 8.0 0.0 25.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 44.3 0.0 %Embeddedness(Reach Est) 15.5 97.5 23.5 32.2 23.9 36.6 12.0 17.7 20.7 29.8 15.8 22.1 30.0 100.0 36.6 24.9 18.3 %Eroding Banks 92.0 27.7 21.6 98.2 73.8 46.9 0.0 68.7 59.3 33.0 85.3 73.8 46.0 55.1 69.7 19.9 27.9 %Undercut Banks 0.0 7.3 0.4 9.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 4.5 5.1 0.0 6.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 3.6 8.5 %Coarse substrate 84.2 10.0 85.0 74.3 27.5 63.7 98.3 78.3 89.2 91.7 86.1 87.7 65.8 0.0 61.8 94.4 86.9 %Sand and fines 0.9 70.0 2.0 7.6 16.5 3.2 0.0 1.9 0.0 4.6 3.0 0.0 8.1 100.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 %Hardpan 1.8 0.0 0.0 2.9 19.3 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 6.9 0.0 0.0 Embeddedness(Pebble Count) 31.8 86.4 40.3 51.4 58.0 49.0 23.9 36.0 36.7 41.2 66.6 49.4 50.2 100.0 64.0 25.6 39.4 Overhead Cover 97.8 28.7 90.4 91.7 99.3 98.9 68.4 93.4 96.7 94.5 90.9 81.6 6.9 55.9 98.2 81.3 97.4 LWD rating 0.9 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.0 0.9 0.8 1.2 1.7 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 Riparian Buffer Width(m) 65.0 38.0 13.0 18.0 13.0 23.0 43.0 10.0 5.0 25.0 33.0 28.0 2.0 4.0 10.0 8.0 20.0 %Tree Cover 50.0 33.0 55.0 38.0 88.0 88.0 68.0 58.0 48.0 78.0 65.0 38.0 5.0 15.0 40.0 58.0 78.0 %Non-Native Veg 18.0 57.0 35.0 48.0 45.0 10.0 0.0 25.0 55.0 68.0 48.0 73.0 35.0 60.0 55.0 33.0 30.0 Water Temperature(°C) 14.2 16.1 14.7 13.1 14.4 13.7 21.2 15.0 15.7 13.0 14.1 15.6 19.1 18.1 14.8 16.1 17.1 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 92.5 61.0 81.1 94.0 68.9 85.7 85.6 91.4 87.2 93.5 89.0 94.2 69.7 60.7 87.0 92.6 93.0 Dissolved Oxygen(mg/L) 9.5 6.0 8.2 9.9 7.1 8.9 7.6 9.2 8.7 9.9 9.2 9.4 6.5 5.7 8.8 9.1 9.0 Conductivity(µS/cm) 128.1 190.6 105.1 93.7 99.4 130.4 138.7 96.0 98.0 145.6 156.9 36.3 165.7 159.6 63.8 98.4 139.4 Specific Conductance(µS/cm) 143.2 208.4 116.8 106.1 111.0 146.5 143.5 106.4 107.5 164.9 175.5 40.0 175.2 170.6 70.9 107.6 150.5 Cole Ecological, Inc. 26 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Appendix 2. Western Oregon multimetric index individual metric scores calculated from macroinvertebrate communities sampled from 17 Clackamas County NPDES MS4 co-permittee stream reaches in fall 2013. 0 x a al cua) = ,x xAU U . U ; U e 8 MetricL ,.., ,„.) U U U oo - ;.. on to ou U o o f: It o o o o oUaa HH Z O n n c U - U G ° ... c w HH. i Richness 19 19 11 24 12 23 15 20 21 22 21 19 28 23 19 24 8 21 Mayfly Richness 2 1 0 1 0 3 0 3 3 3 3 1 4 2 0 5 1 3 Stonefly Richness 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 Caddisfly Richness 0 1 0 2 2 1 2 2 2 5 3 2 4 2 0 3 0 2 Number Sensitive Taxa 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 1 #Sediment Sensitive Taxa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Modified HBI1 6.3 6.2 5.5 6.6 6.0 5.6 5.2 6.1 5.6 5.2 5.4 5.3 4.3 5.9 6.7 4.2 5.6 5.3 %Tolerant Taxa 29.6 33.3 11.3 9.3 55.1 19.7 79.9 28.8 45.5 35.4 37.8 36.6 7.7 64.0 54.4 1.7 8.5 34.5 %Sediment Tolerant Taxa 20.1 31.3 11.3 11.8 42.4 19.7 0.7 23.4 16.5 3.6 12.3 5.7 8.6 12.6 25.8 1.1 8.5 7.8 %Dominant 20.9 39.2 47.2 49.4 41.8 33.0 75.9 19.3 28.8 25.8 22.2 30.9 16.7 26.4 24.7 32.7 54.5 25.6 Cole Ecological, Inc. 27 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Appendix 3. Google Earth images depicting locations of 2013 Clackamas County NPDES MS4 co-permittees macroinvertebrate sample sites. p...._ 1 f -s; z `�z x ��- j arter Creek ` � ,40 '4�` . - Ball Creek 4 ^ ' S� , r\ GOogle ,3 be.Coogle i 1I mo $.x35 rs wr... L.1 Fr..r o d 1?1.:55 52 azr.5w ...zara Fr.. r5r Carter Creek Ball Creek Y - ` . 1! � „ Tryon creek -a, I. ,, ' 't \ a �ysr .i'-.. /* `` � ,'tea � . ' 41110 .>:r .w f ya a ` r r✓!i 1r 09 S � �� " P a sa w .ev as _ re.ii zofi. , t mop..•m.�. ayo w _5ypw ..y 63 It Ewe Nettle Creek Tryon Creek - - , F �, -. - _ C `. cs " * Anme- r e ,,. ''. - "- Oswego Creek Cole Ecological, Inc. 28 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates a - = - z - _ t ~ -_ ?i ..� --....T...-sue �atcdTog Creak it - It* -~ R e rvtili ,-y3'� 1 `''Springbrook Creek,>R�es Drat c-, / a` + > ' '� ANI _ ,a.: • .110°', ,m.er .,,,+c.zoue as z w....nzn Ey..,, n • w, J. .zoc e r. Ysrli°aae.n Springbrook Creek— Restoration Reach West Branch Lost Dog Creek f r� may. .. ..- .. _ -"• .`' z c E Br=LostiDog Creak --Springbrook Creek ower _ / ` - - - ,�h�is.zn .., - -P'!..q, oe a ',Y a-ee ,,n Lower Springbrook Creek East Branch Lost Dog Creek r = i VI _ ,, 1�- - P • Y .'r - - .. - _ Boeckman ' E • :�°� --c -, 9 ,.c;ooglc Y P< . + CSgc le earth « „an 9 ,e,a,,sSUE: 8amo Lower Lost Dog Creek Boeckman Creek Cole Ecological, Inc. 29 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates l'IT'il- _ F ..--i a1 erflan ft �' —Mhtnorn' --� 4 '",�. ipiI. roR +G .tea \� a. mo r' Y .' �N/Iq/fl ikj1/l//f!� fr Sr - ._. d]® ,r .1411, "hi tar „4. Coffee Creek Minthorn Creek air r, r ,;4. ._I , . /, s ° • • .• Rinearson - • Singer _ — - /• ro - -- 166' ' / '-41.1— ., :4`. y >� o,Goaseonglee:rth rr: \2 ` E ' 1` 4.3az3z~'22.bo33b »2, 0 9,9 09• ,masen oa,e a/r=aor2 ere a�."= m Q Rinearson Creek Singer Creek © �C tile _ wow 3 s 4. ppoo_� - Trillium e. k .k."44 i w j j- •• • • - /ATI) .0. k.,:•-•" •C • 09 351b10, y t. .mQ al-.W.- :ii: /15/1012 at 4539602b� Tanner Creek Trillium Creek Cole Ecological, Inc. 30 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Appendix 4. Reach Assessment Summary Sheets Cole Ecological, Inc. 31 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary G0 LE Stream Name: Ball Creek ECOLOGICAL.boo. Location: ^'70 m upstream of Kruse Oaks Blvd Latitude: 45.42452 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.74031 Date sampled: Reach Length: 75 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics - Surve start facinj upstream Wetted Width(m) 1.4 � I ti':.A..: .- ��'� g j+s` Bankfull Width(m) 5.0 0% 50% 100% Rapids/Cast. 0.0 % 0%Rapids/Case. ■%Riffles ..$..., � Riffles 50.7 aP ti �;, %Glides/Runs 9.3 ■%Glides/Runs ■%Pools . r Pools 32.0 hr r° ' Substrate ioo.o- %Wood WD 0.0 80.0 • ti ;' : L AR %Hardpan H P 2.0 '- Vie. - _ 'sue Fines FN 0.0 60.0- 4t •'y7�Y_.• -. •-"•..;M ,' t %Sand SA 1.0 Fine Gravel GF 13.0 400 %Crse Gravel GC 42.0 20.0- %Cobble CB 38.0 %Bulder BL 4.0 0'0 a z a LL m Q Surve end facin:downstream %Bedrock BR 0.0 3 = • %Embeddedness 31.8 7 Large Wood Rating 0.92 Embeddedness Eroding Banks(%) 92 /� Undercut Banks(%) 0 • Riparian Zone Characteristics, . _:j Canopy Cover(%) 97.8 Canopy Cover . Riparian Buffer Width(m) 65 4. Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 80 • Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 18 - Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature (°C) 14.2 Specific Cond(µS/cm) 143 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 92.5 . Time of Measurement 820 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-01 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DEQ Metric Scores PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. 50 Disturbance Richness 19 3 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 2 1 40 2013 Stoneflv 0 1 Caddisflv 1 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Taxa 0 1 30 #Sed Sens Taxz 0 1 Modified HBI 6.3 1 Mod disturbed %TolerantTaxz 29.6 3 20 StressorScores %Sed Tol Taxa 20.1 3 Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: %Dominant(1) 20.8 3 10 Fine Sediment Stress: TOTAL MMI SCORE • 18 Cole Ecological, Inc. 32 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary COS Stream Name: Carter Creek ccQLooIcwL.Wa. Location: CarterCrkatBangy Latitude: 45.42452 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.74031 Date sampled: 9/20/2013 Reach Length: 75 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics FEM ' Surve start,facin: u.stream Wetted Width(m) 1.6 �' -� ';�4, Bankfull Width(m) 7.9 >yl 0% 50% 100% . *" %Rapids/Casc. 0.0 •, }l ;.;•its • , %Riffles 14.7 o%Rapids/Casc. 0%Riffles T %Glides/Runs 14.7 •%Glides/Runs ■%Pools .' l' l - %Pools 70.7 Substrate ioo.o- , %Wood WD 0.0 z, %Hardpan HP 0.0 80.0- %Fines FN 30.0 m.o. %Sand SA 40.0 %Fine Gravel GF 20.0 400 %Crse Gravel GC 10.0 n0. %Cobble CB 0.0 Bulder BL 0.0 00 0 = Z N , CO m m Survey end,facing downstream %Bedrock BR 0.0 3 %Embeddedness 86.4 Large Wood Rating 0 Embeddedness - --. - Eroding Banks(%) 27.7333 Undercut Banks(%) 7.33333 Riparian Zone Characteristics • Canopy Cover(%) 28.6765 Canopy Cover Riparian Buffer Width(m) 38 Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 33 Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 57 Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature (°C) 16.1 Specific Cond(µS/cm) 208.4 • Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 61 II . Time of Measurement 1330 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-02 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Glide DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand - 50 Disturbance Richness 19 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 1 40 2013 MF.388 NA Stoneflv 0 Caddisflv 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Taxi 0 30 #Sed Sens Taxz 0 Mod disturbed Modified HBI 6.24 %Tolerant Tam 33.3 20 Stressor Scores %Sed Tol Taxa 31.25 Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: %Dominant(1) 39.2 10 Fine Sediment Stress: NA TOTAL MMI SCORE • 16 Cole Ecological, Inc. 33 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary J co LE Stream Name: Lost Dog Creek d�ecoc oo,c u.n,¢ Location: Lost Dog @ Lake Front Dr Latitude: 45.40064 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.6891 Date sampled: 9/20/2013 Reach Length: 75 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics PM Surve start facin: u.stream Wetted Width(m) 1.1 -' Bankfull Width(m) 3.5 0% 50% 100% ti u• .4 . Rapids/Cast. 25.3 t . ,��..;+ •: •• %Riffles 26.7 %Rapids/Casc. ■%Riffles �� � % ■%Glides/Runs ■%Pools ,A.1t i' Y Glides/Runs 5.3 - . %Pools 42.7 y'"'`'' Substrate ioo.o- •, .. %Wood WD 0.0 %Hardpan HP 0.0 80'0' •. %Fines FN 0.0 60.0- - ' i A' %Sand SA 2.0 %Fine Gravel GF 13.0 40.0- %Crse Gravel GC 46.0 20.0. %Cobble CB 39.0 %Bulder BL 0.0 0.0 0 a Z < LL 0 m Surve end,facin:downstream %Bedrock BR 0.0 3 2 U- co 0 0 0 m m %Embeddedness 40.3 • . Z =k Large Wood Rating 0.32 Embeddedness -.3 Eroding Banks(%) 21.6 • Undercut Banks(%) 0.4 • • Riparian Zone Characteristics , .;_. ,- . Canopy Cover(%) 90.4412 Canopy Cove r - 1.1:!•:-. Riparian Buffer Width(m) 13 _ '-`4 ':'WyL Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 55 WZ Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 35 " Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature (°C) 14.7 Specific Cond(µS/cm) 116.8 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 81.1 ! I I I . Time of Measurement 1115 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-03 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DE0 METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand 50 Disturbance Richness 11 1 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mavflv 0 1 40 2013 0.291 Most Stoneflv 0 1 Caddisflv 0 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Taxi 0 1 30 #Sed Sens Taxa 0 1 Modified HBI 5.5 1 Mod disturbed %Tolerant Taxa 11.3 5 20 Stressor Scores %Sed Tol Taxa 11.3 3 r Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: 15.9 %Dominant(1) 47.2 1 10 Fine Sediment Stress: I 32.3 TOTAL MMI SCORE • 16 Cole Ecological, Inc. 34 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary ®Gam Stream Name: Lost Dog Creek East aAL. Location: Lost Dog @ Stafford Rd Latitude: 45.4026 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.68057 Date sampled: 9/20/2013 Reach Length: 50 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics I li Surve start,facin: u.stream Wetted Width(m) 1.0 I Bankfull Width(m) 1.3 0% 50% 100% 1 %Rapids/Casc. 0.0 %Riffles 54.9 0%Rapids/Casc. 0%Riffles %Glides Runs 0.0 •%Glides/Runs ■%Pools %Pools 45.1 ::-. - J. r. Substrate -.-• - • - ioo.o- %Wood WD 0.0 %Hardpan HP 2.9 80.0- %Fines FN 1.0 60.0- .• %Sand SA 6.7 Fine Gravel GF 15.2 40.0- - - %Crse Gravel GC 35.2 zo.o. %Cobble CB 39.0 n %Bulder BL 0.0 0.0 Inr.Z l l m, ,'CE' Surve end,facin:downstream %Bedrock BR 0.0 3 = LL w c� o o m m .- ' %Embeddedness 51.4 Large Wood Rating 0 Embeddedness `. i V Eroding Banks(%) 98.2353 :=+ Undercut Banks(%) 9.01961 e Riparian Zone Characteristics, h c°`` ` • Canopy Cover(%) 91.6667 Canopy Cover '. .' +_ Riparian Buffer Width(m) 18 - Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 38 ' .n. Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 48 Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature (°C) 13.1 Specific Cond(µS/cm) 106.1 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 94 Time of Measurement 1005 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-04 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. - 50 Disturbance Richness 24 3 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 1 1 40 2013 Most Stoneflv 0 1 Caddisflv 2 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Tax, 0 1 30 #Sed Sens Taxz 0 1 Modified HBI 6.6 1 Mod disturbed %Tolerant Tam 9.3 5 I � 20 Stressor Scores %SedTolTaxa 11.8 3 Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: 16.8 %Dominant(11 49.4 1 10 Fine Sedi ment Stress: 49.5 TOTAL MMI SCORE • 18 Cole Ecological, Inc. 35 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary COLS Stream Name: Lost Dog Creek WestAi ECOLOGICAL.INC Location: Lost Dog @ Golf Course Latitude: 45.40999 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.67819 Date sampled: 9/20/2013 Reach Length: 75 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics Surve start,facin_• u.stream Wetted Width (m) 0.7 Bankfull Width(m) 1.1 0% 50% 100% -` %Rapids/Casc. 0.0 x'.r %Riffles 16.2 o%Rapids/Casc. ■%Riffles %Glides/Runs 13.5 •%Glides/Runs ■%Pools %Pools 70.3 Substrate Ioo.o- y %Wood WD 0.0 r " %Hardpan HP 19.3 800' %Fines FN 0.0 60.0- %Sand SA 16.5 %Fine Gravel GF 36.7 4"' %Crse Gravel GC 26.6 20.0. %Cobble CB 0.9 %Bulder BL 0.0 o.o a Z a LL m Survey end,facing downstream %Bedrock BR 0.0 = U. In 0 0 0 CO CO ' r %Embeddedness 58.0 �! Large Wood Rating 0 Embeddedness '';i! . '' Eroding Banks(%) 73.7838 i j•: Undercut Banks (%) 0 Riparian Zone Characteristics ' ' I Canopy Cover(%) 99.2647 CanopyCover Riparian Buffer Width(m) 13 • Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 88 i ` Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 45 I.. Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature(CC) 14.4 Specific Cond (µS/cm) 111 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 68.9 Time of Measurement 845 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-05 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. - 50 Disturbance Richness 12 1 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mavflv 0 1 40 2013 Stoneflv 0 1 Caddisflv 2 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Tam 0 1 30 #Sed Sens Taxa 0 1 Modified HBI 6.0 1 Mod disturbed %TolerantTaxz 55.1 1 20 StressorScores %Sed Tol Taxa 42.4 1 Severely disturbed (Temperature Stress: %Dominant(1) 41.8 1 )_10 FineSedimentStress: •TOTAL MMI SCORE • 10 Cole Ecological, Inc. 36 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary COLS Stream Name: Nettle Creek ECOLOO7CAL.Mc. Location: Nettle Creek at Iron Mtn Rd Latitude: 45.42461 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.68137 Date sampled: 9/19/2013 Reach Length: 80 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics 1- Survey sta rt,fa ci n: u.stream Wetted Width(m) 1.2I . Bankfull Width(m) 2.8 0% 50% 100% %Rapids/Casc. 0.0 - %Riffles 66.3 o%Rapids/Casc. o%RIles %Glides/Runs 0.0 •%Glides/Runs •%Pools . - %Pools 33.8 Substrate mo.o- %Wood WD 0.0 - :,- %Hardpan HP 0.8 80.0- _---. • Fines FN 0.0 60.0• 'AO 1. s'^ %Sand SA 3.2 %Fine Gravel GF 32.3 400- _ %Crse Gravel GC 50.8 20.0. %Cobble CB 12.1%Bulder BL 0.8 0.0 O'a'z�.LL R. ,'ar' Surve end,facin:downstream co %Bedrock BR 0.0 8 = LL w c7 0 " m f° ce�1l' ' 1 %Embeddedness 49.0 4 ;4'', i . Large Wood Rating 1.7 Embeddedness s Eroding Banks (%) 46.875 M SS � Undercut Banks(%) 1.25 't Riparian Zone Characteristics, • Canopy Cover(%) 98.8971 Canopy Cover . Riparian Buffer Width(m) 23 "r'r Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 88 ^' 7410. Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 10 r • Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature (°C) 13.7 Specific Cond(µS/cm) 146.5 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 85.7 . Time of Measurement 1100 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-06 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. - 50 Disturbance Richness 23 3 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 3 1 40 2013 Most Stoneflv 2 1 Caddisflv 1 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Taxa 1 1 30 #Sed Sens Taxz 0 1 Modified HBI 5.6 1 Mod disturbed %Tolerant Tam 19.7 3 I � 20 Stressor Scores %Sed Tol Taxa 19.7 3 Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: %Dominant(1) 33.0 3 10 Fine Sediment Stress: TOTAL MMI SCORE • 18 Cole Ecological, Inc. 37 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary ©�'az..E Stream Name: Oswego Creek ECOLOGICAL,bier. Location: Oswego Creek(ds Hwy43) Latitude: 45.41073 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.66248 Date sampled: 9/19/2013 Reach Length: 75 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics Surve start,facing upstream Wetted Width(m) 4.8 I ` Bankfull Width(m) 10.2 0% 50% 100% %Rapids/Casc. 0.0F.- %Riffles 46.7 o%Rapids/Casc. o%RIles %Glides/Runs 0.0 •%Glides/Runs ■%Pools . - %Pools 53.3 Substrate too.°- .. .- %Wood WD 0.0 %Hardpan HP 0.0 80.0- r ' %Fines FN 0.0 60.0- • a Na44 %Sand SA 0.0 — ' %Fine Gravel GF 1.7 40'0- %Crse Gravel GC 27.3 20.0- — %Cobble CB 49.6ri %Bulder BL 21.5 0'0 0 a'z a LL c m Surve end,facin:downstream %Bedrock BR 0.0 8 z LL w cs 0 0 m co %Embeddedness 23.9 ` to , + Large Wood Rating 0 Embeddedness L *'••. Eroding Banks (%) 0 "TV Undercut Banks(%) 0 ��'i ....„ `• Oil Riparian Zone Characteristics, - ` • Canopy Cover(%) 68.3824 Canopy Cover Riparian Buffer Width(m) 43 Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 68 " Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 0 . Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature (°C) 21.2 Specific Cond(µS/cm) 143.5 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 85.6 C I I I . Time of Measurement 1535 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-07 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. - 50 Disturbance Richness 15 1 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 0 1 40 2013 1 Most Stoneflv 0 1 Caddisflv 2 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Tam 0 1 30 #Sed Sens Taxz 0 1 Modified HBI 5.2 1 Mod disturbed %Tolerant Tam 79.9 1 20 Stressor Scores %Sed Tol Taxa 0.7 5 y Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: 26.3 %Dominant(1) 75.9 1 10 Fine Sediment Stress: 54.2 TOTAL MMI SCORE 14 Cole Ecological, Inc. 38 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary ®�.,oz..E Stream Name: Springbrook Creek Restoration Reach ECOLOGICAL.INC Location: Springbrook Creek at Boones Way Latitude: 45.41403 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.71512 Date sampled: 9/19/2013 Reach Length: 75 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics Surve start,facing upstream Wetted Width(m) 1.7 I Bankfull Width(m) 2.9 0% 50% 100% :3 ;4 %Rapids/Casc. 2.7 3-,. •. ,_ . s , %Riffles 49.3 O%Rapids/Casc. 0%Riffles :r•' %Glides/Runs 13.3 %Glides/Runs ■%Pools ..- s" '.may, s %Pools 34.7 s '• '•"4 Substrate mo.o- ; - %Wood WD 0.0 • # %Hardpan HP 0.0 80.0- - %Fines FN 0.0 60.0- %Sand SA 1.9 %Fine Gravel GF 19.8 400- - %Crse Gravel GC 34.0 20.0. - %Cobble CB 41.5 %Bulder BL 2.8 0.0 o'a'zrrLL mr'or' Survey end,facin:downstream Bedrock BR 0.0 3 z LL w o c0 o m 03 4'• 2..p.= _ - ,;.. %Embeddedness 36.0 Large Wood Rating 0.88 Embeddedness Eroding Banks (%) 68.6667 Undercut Banks(%) 4.53333 _ Riparian Zone Characteristics Canopy Cover(%) 93.3824 Canopy Cover . Riparian Buffer Width(m) 10 Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 58 - i1' -J. !, Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 25 ' Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature (°C) 15 Specific Cond(µS/cm) 106.4 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 91.4 Time of Measurement 1245 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-08 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. - 50 Disturbance Richness 20 3 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 3 1 40 2013 MF.388 Most Stoneflv 0 1 Caddisflv 2 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Tam 1 1 30 #Sed Sens Taxz 0 1 Modified HBI 6.1 1 Mod disturbed %Tolerant Tam 28.8 3 1 F20 StressorScores %SedTolTaxa 23.4 3 Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: %Dominant(1) 19.3 5 10 Fine Sediment Stress: TOTAL MMI SCORE 20 Cole Ecological, Inc. 39 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary ©�.'az..E Stream Name: Springbrook Creek Lower eaoLoQc,-,nac• Location: Springbrook Creek at Iron Mtn Park Latitude: 45.41421 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.70775 Date sampled: 9/19/2013 Reach Length: 84 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics I ii Surve start,facinx upstream Wetted Width(m) 1.9 I I 1 7-far Bankfull Width(m) 2.9 0% 50% 100% Rapids/Cast. 0.0 a Riffles 57.1 o%Rapids/Cast. o%RIles %Glides/Runs 0.0 •%Glides/Runs •%Pools %Pools 42.9 77\ Substrate mo.o- ti, %Wood WD 0.0 , %Hardpan HP 0.0 80.0- r - 41. ! %Fines FN 0.0 60.0. ` %Sand SA 0.0 %FineGravel GF 10.8 400- - %Crse Gravel GC 51.4 20.0. %Cobble CB 36.9 L %Bulder BL 0.9 0'0 o'a'z.aAI,, ,J'm. Surve end,facin• downstream %Bedrock BR 0.0 3 = LL w c0 o " m co 3• f'' %Embeddedness 36.7 y1 r4�'' Large Wood Rating 0.77381 Embeddedness jy v Eroding Banks (%) 59.2857 .., " Undercut Banks(%) 5.05952 Riparian Zone Characteristics Canopy Cover(%) 96.6912 1j )CanoPvCover _.•y Riparian Buffer Width(m) 5 I Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 48 ` Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 55 Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature (°C) 15.7 Specific Cond(µS/cm) 107.5 b I Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 87.2I . Time of Measurement 1430 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-09 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. - 50 Disturbance Richness 21 3 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 3 1 40 2013 Most Stoneflv 0 1 Caddisflv 2 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Taxa 1 1 30 #Sed Sens Taxz 0 1 Modified HBI 5.6 1 Mod disturbed %Tolerant Taxs 45.5 1 20 Stressor Scores %Sed Tol Taxa 16.5 3 1 I Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: %Dominant(1) 28.8 3 10 Fine Sediment Stress: TOTAL MMI SCORE • 16 Cole Ecological, Inc. 40 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary ®Cam Stream Name: Boeckman Creek E COLOO]CAL,M¢ Location: Boeckman Creek DS Rose Ln Latitude: 45.29917142 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.754864 Date sampled: 9/22/2013 Reach Length: 100 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics Survey start,facing upstream Wetted Width (m) 1.9 , Bankfull Width(m) 3.4 0% 50% 100% %Rapids/Casc. 0.0 %Riffles 25.0 O%Rapids/Casc. ■%Riffles %Glides/Runs 30.0 •%Glides/Runs ■%Pools %Pools 45.0 Substrate too.o- %Wood WD 0.0 %Hardpan HP 3.0 son- %Fines FN 0.0 60.0. 7 %Sand SA 3.0 %Fine Gravel GF 7.9 40.0• %Crse Gravel GC 60.4 p,0- %Cobble CB 23.8 %Bulder BL 2.0 0.o 0'a'Z'a LLl o m m' Surve end,facin: downstream %Bedrock BR 0.0 3 = " m 0 0 o m m %Embeddedness 66.6 ' Large Wood Rating 1.74 Embeddedness Eroding Banks(%) 85.3 Undercut Banks (%) 6.4 Riparian Zone Characteristics — ',.�; Canopy Cover(%) 90.8824 Canopy Cover Riparian Buffer Width(m) 33 Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 65 Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 48 Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature(°C) 14.1 Specific Cond (µS/cm) 175.5 • Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 89 Time of Measurement 1040 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-12 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. 50 Disturbance Richness 19 3 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 1 1 40 2013 0.388 Most Stoneflv 0 1 Caddisflv 2 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Tam 0 1 30 #Sed Sens Taxs 0 1 Modified HBI 5.3 1 Mod disturbed %Tolera Taxa 36.6 3 I 20 Se Stress: s rs:Scores %Sed Tol Taxa 5.7 5 Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: %Dominant(1) 30.9 3 10 Fine Sediment Stress: TOTAL MMI SCORE 20 Cole Ecological, Inc. 41 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary ®Cam Stream Name: Coffee Creek ECOLOO]CAL,M¢ Location: Lower Coffee Creek Latitude: 45.34613529 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.618168 Date sampled: 9/16/2013 Reach Length: 50 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics I I I� Survey start,facing upstream Wetted Width (m) 1.2 I Bankfull Width(m) 2.4 0% 50% 100% %Rapids/Casc. 10.0 %Riffles 80.0 0%Rapids/Casc. ■%Riffles %Glides/Runs 0.0 •%Glides/Runs ■%Pools %Pools 10.0 N{, .- Substrate +a :r %Wood WD 0.9 �,:o 7 Hardpan HP 0.9 80.0 � sy 1 ,`: ' ' Fines FN 0.0 so.o- a '' ( 'sY F,to i, %Sand SA 0.0 ''"' %Fine Gravel GF 10.4 400- %Crse Gravel GC 45.3 20.0. %Cobble CB 42.5 %Bulder BL 0.0 0'0 o a z a LL m Survey end,facing downstream %Bedrock BR 0.0 3 ' " m o 0 o m m st _ ;d - %Embeddedness 49.4 ' Large Wood Rating 1.92 Embeddedness i. i• ,, s Eroding Banks(%) 73.8 •` Y - w ,.tar 0,- ,•-?' ' Undercut Banks (%) 0 t. - ` e Riparian Zone Characteristics, +r ' - . Y CanopyCover(%) 81.6176 CanopyCover �' .Y Riparian Buffer Width(m) 28 •- v. Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 38 ' c• Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 73 Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature(°C) 15.6 Specific Cond (µS/cm) 40 I Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 94.2 . I Time of Measurement 850 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-13 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. 50 Disturbance Richness 28 3 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 4 3 40 2013 I=1 Most Stoneflv 4 3 Caddisflv 4 3 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Tam 3 3 30 #Sed Sens Taxa 1 3 Modified HBI 4.3 3 Mod disturbed %Tolerant Taxa 7.7 5 20 Stressor Scores %Sed Tol Taxa 8.6 5 Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: 17.2 %Dominant(1) 16.7 5 10 Fine Sediment Stress: 22.1 TOTAL MMI SCORE • 36 Cole Ecological, Inc. 42 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary ®CaLE Stream Name: Minthorn Creek ECOLOO]CAL,M¢ Location: Box Culvet at SE Lake Road Latitude: 45.43181479 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.598378 Date sampled: 9/14/2013 Reach Length: 45 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics I Survey start,facing upstream Wetted Width (m) 1.2 I _ Bankfull Width(m) 2.1 0% 50% 100% %Rapids/Casc. 0.0 , i• %Riffles 57.8 O%Rapids/Casc. ■%Riffles %Glides/Runs 0.0 •%Glides/Runs ■%Pools %Pools 42.2 Substrate too.o- %Wood WD 0.0 %Hardpan HP 0.0 80°- ;A. %Fines FN 0.9 80.0- %Sand SA 7.2 %Fine Gravel GE 26.1 40.0' — %Crse Gravel GC 40.5 20.0. %Cobble CB 25.2 %Bulder BL 0.0 no o'a'z rrLL,o CO'�'m' Surve end,facing downstream %Bedrock BR 0.0 3 = LL m C0 co o m m %Embeddedness 50.2 Large Wood Rating 0 Embeddedness A •'4 Eroding Banks(%) 46 Undercut Banks (%) 0 • 100--- - - Riparian Zone Characteristics Canopy Cover(%) 6.86275 Canopy Cover Riparian Buffer Width(m) 2 Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 5 Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 35 Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature(°C) 19.1 Specific Cond (µS/cm) 175.2 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 69.7 . Time of Measurement 940 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-14 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. - 50 Disturbance Richness 23 3 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 2 1 40 2013 0.388 Most Stoneflv 0 1 Caddisflv 2 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Tam 0 1 30 #Sed Sens Taxa 0 1 Modified HBI 5.9 1 Mod disturbed %Tolerant Taxa 64.0 1 20 Stressor Scores %Sed Tol Taxa 12.6 3 l I Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: 23.4 %Dominant(1) 26.4 3 10 Fine Sediment Stress: 51.2 TOTAL MMI SCORE • 16 Cole Ecological, Inc. 43 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary ®CaLE Stream Name: Rinearson Creek E COLOO]CAL,M¢ Location: Outfall at Risley Rd Latitude: 45.38215896 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.60383 Date sampled: 9/16/2013 Reach Length: 75 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics Survey start,facing upstream Wetted Width (m) 1.2 "- Bankfull Width(m) 3.4 0% 50% 100% %Rapids/Casc. 0.0 • %Riffles 5.3 0%Rapids/Casc. ■%Riffles %Glides/Runs 94.7 ■%Glides/Runs ■%Pools %Pools 0.0 Substrate loom- %Wood WD 0.0 %Hardpan HP 0.0 sot)- %Fines FN 0.0 60.0- %Sand SA 100.0 %Fine Gravel GF 0.0 40.0' %Crse Gravel GC 0.0 20.0- %Cobble CB 0.0 %Bulder BL 0.0 0.0 0'a'Z'a LL CO Surve end,facin: downstream %Bedrock BR 0.0 3 = LL m C0 C o m m %Embeddedness 100.0 i. a ^' • '1 • Large Wood Rating 0 Embeddedness `" Eroding Banks(%) 55.0667 Undercut Banks (%) 0 Riparian Zone Characteristics, Canopy Cover(%) 55.8824 Canopy Cover ` Riparian Buffer Width(m) 4 �.� •- .�ti Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 15 : 3 Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 60 - Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature(°C) 18.1 Specific Cond (µS/cm) 170.6 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 60.7 . Time of Measurement 1350 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-15 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Glide DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. 50 Disturbance Richness 19 3 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 0 1 40 2013 0.242 NA Stoneflv 0 1 Caddisflv 0 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Taxi' 0 1 30 #Sed Sens Taxa 0 1 Modified HBI 6.7 1 Mod disturbed %Tolerant Taxa 54.4 1 20 Stressor Scores %Sed Tol Taxa 25.8 1 Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: I 21 %Dominant(1) 24.7 3 10 Fine Sediment Stress: NA TOTAL MMI SCORE • 14 Cole Ecological, Inc. 44 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary ®Cam Stream Name: Singer Creek ECOLOO7CAL,M¢ Location: Singer Creek at Singer Creek Park Latitude: 45.34771701 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.601959 Date sampled: 9/16/2013 Reach Length: 75 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics I Survey start,facing upstream Wetted Width (m) 1.0 I Bankfull Width(m) 1.8 0% 50% 100% - %Rapids/Casc. 0.0 I. %Riffles 70.1 0%Rapids/Casc. ■%Riffles • Glides/Runs 0.0 •%Glides/Runs ■%Pools . %Pools 29.9 Substrate too.o- - %Wood WD 1.0 W :r. - %Hardpan HP 6.9 800- '` r %Fines FN 0.0 60.0- -;`24, `. %Sand SA 0.0 ` %Fine Gravel GF 30.4 400' %Crse Gravel GC 55.9 20.0- %Cobble CB 5.9 %Bulder BL 0.0 0'0 o a Z a LL 0 m m Survey end,facin: downstream %Bedrock BR 0.0 3 = U. m os (0 o m m ;', %Embeddedness 64.0 4.. - '� Large Wood Rating 0.24675 Embeddedness Eroding Banks(%) 69.7403 Undercut Banks (%) 1.16883 f Riparian Zone Characteristics. - , Canopy Cover(%) 98.1618 Canopy Cover liZ Riparian Buffer Width(m) 10 F • Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 40 Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 55 Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature(°C) 14.8 Specific Cond (µS/cm) 70.9 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 87 Time of Measurement 950 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-16 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. 50 Disturbance Richness 24 3 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 5 3 40 2013 IM Most Stoneflv 2 1 Caddisflv 3 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Tam 2 3 0-30 #Sed Sens Taxa 1 3 Modified HBI 4.2 3 Mod disturbed %Sed Tol axa 1.1 5 20 a Stress: sor Scores Sed Tol Taxa 1.1 5 Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: 16.2 %Dominant(1) 32.7 3 10 Fine Sediment Stress: TOTAL MMI SCORE • 30 Cole Ecological, Inc. 45 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary ®CaLE Stream Name: Tanner Creek E COLOO]CAL,M¢ Location: Imperial Drive Latitude: 45.3516544 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.630998 Date sampled: 9/16/2013 Reach Length: 75 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics I I I Survey start,facing upstream Wetted Width (m) 1.9 I Bankfull Width(m) 3.0 0% 50% 100% 1 %Rapids/Casc. 44.3 ...--.1 %Riffles 28.6 O%Rapids/Casc. ■%Riffles ^`; 4 %Glides/Runs 0.0 •%Glides/Runs ■%Pools i %Pools 27.1 Substrate too.o- _ , %Wood WD 0.0 i. • %Hardpan HP 0.0 sou- %Fines FN 0.0 60.0- %Sand SA 0.9 %Fine Gravel GF 4.6 400' %Crse Gravel GC 28.7 zoo. %Cobble CB 58.3 %Bulder BL 7.4 0.0 o a Z Q LL CO Et Survey end,facing downstream %Bedrock BR 0.0 3 = " m o 0 o m m %Embeddedness 25.6 Large Wood Rating 0 Embeddedness Eroding Banks(%) 19.8571 Undercut Banks (%) 3.57143 - Riparian Zone Characteristics, 3, Canopy Cover(%) 81.25 Canopy Cover Riparian Buffer Width(m) 8 Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 58 Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 33 Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature(°C) 16.1 Specific Cond (µS/cm) 107.6 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 92.6 Time of Measurement 1130 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-17 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. - 50 Disturbance Richness 8 1 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 1 1 40 2013 IM Most Stoneflv 0 1 Caddisflv 0 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Tam 0 1 30 #Sed Sens Taxa 0 1 Modified HBI 5.6 1 Mod disturbed %Tolerant Taxa 8.5 5 20 Stressor Scores %Sed Tol Taxa 8.5 5 Severelvdisturbed Temperature Stress: 16.1 %Dominant(1) 54.5 1 10 Fine Sediment Stress: 18.2 TOTAL MMI SCORE 18 Cole Ecological, Inc. 46 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates Reach Assessment Summary ®Cam Stream Name: Trillium Creek E COLOO]CAL,M¢ Location: Caloroga Rd Latitude: 45.39573241 County,State: Clackamas,Oregon Longitude: -122.637776 Date sampled: 9/14/2013 Reach Length: 75 m Personnel: M.Cole and A.Miller Physical and Chemical Conditions Summary Instream Physical Characteristics Survey start,facing upstream Wetted Width (m) 2.0 I . . Bankfull Width(m) 3.8 0% 50% 100% ^. %Rapids/Casc. 0.0 -. ,, Riffles 49.3 0%Rapids/Casc. 0%Riffles '' ' -'';r}T`- •..i tc' ii-mL!' .-. %Glides/Runs 0.0 •%Glides/Runs ■%Pools %Pools 50.7 " Substrate too.°- -,_ ..P• ; %Wood WD 0.0 ._ s .• _; V Hardpan HP 0.0 %Fines FN 0.0 60.0. r-''•� •.. 4 he ilifeit %Sand SA 0.0 ' %Fine Gravel GF 13.1 400• %CrseGravel GC 71.0 200- %Cobble CB 15.9 %Bulder BL 0.0 0'0 o a z < LL m Surve end,facing downstream Bedrock BR 0.0 3 = m m %Embeddedness 39.4 Large Wood Rating 0.16 Embeddedness Eroding Banks(%) 27.8667 Undercut Banks (%) 8.53333 Riparian Zone Characteristics Canopy Cover(%) 97.4265 Canopy Cover Riparian Buffer Width(m) 20 Rip Zone Tree Cover(%) 78 C % Rip Non-Native Cover(%) 30 - Chemical Characteristics Water Temperature(°C) 17.1 Specific Cond (µS/cm) 150.5 Dissolved Oxygen(%sat) 93 Time of Measurement 1110 0 25 50 75 100 CE Sample ID: 13-121-18 Biological Conditions Summary Sample Method:OR 8-kick Target Habitat: Riffle DEO METRIC SCORES PREDATOR O/E Score Raw Stand. 50 Disturbance Richness 21 3 Non-disturbed Year Score Level Mayfly 3 1 40 2013 IM Most Stoneflv 0 1 Caddisflv 2 1 Slightly disturbed #Sensitive Taxi' 1 1 30 #Sed Sens Taxa 0 1 Modified HBI 5.3 1 Mod disturbed %Tolerant Taxa 34.5 3 20 Stressor Scores %Sed Tol Taxa 7.8 5 Severely disturbed Temperature Stress: %Dominant(1) 25.6 3 10 Fine Sediment Stress: TOTAL MMI SCORE • 20 Cole Ecological, Inc. 47 Clackamas Co.MS4 Macroinvertebrates